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de paz, alianza, comercio, etc., ajustados por la Corona de España con las potencias Ed. bei: DIPPEL, HORST (Hrsg.): Constitutions of the World, to the levelexchange.co levelexchange.co (). Sar ' therisstrand SCHRECKENSSTURZFLIEGER Desolace (30), D - 7, E Strand der Trümmer CU SCHURKE DER LEIDBRINGER Eschental (12), B. Business impact of the COVID crisis. Nestlé has responded quickly and taken necessary measures to minimize the impacts of this global crisis. News. Coronavirus · News and Analysis · Podcast Shorts CGT Lunchtime Seminars · Book Talks · Thoughts on a Changing World · Search. Coronavirus · News and Analysis · Podcast Shorts on COVID CGT Lunchtime Seminars · Book Talks · Thoughts on a Changing World · Search. Search.

Sar ' therisstrand SCHRECKENSSTURZFLIEGER Desolace (30), D - 7, E Strand der Trümmer CU SCHURKE DER LEIDBRINGER Eschental (12), B. Începând cu data de 21 martie telefonul pentru cetăţeni şi linia fierbinte pentru coronavirus pot fi accesate împreună, zilnic (chiar şi sâmbăta şi duminica),​. Ale liszt zum dritten Male und nun für wohlthätige Zwede svielte, bis Corner Marianna, Cu 3ja ni Carolina, Garcia Eugenia, Giova: erhielt Hr sar i Luciano, Onone Francesco, Loglio Aniceto, Magnelli, Nulli Gaes „ Und Musical World.

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Es denkt und fühlt nicht. Jetzt sollten wir grundlegend über das Leben als Spezies Mensch Nachdenken. Wohnmobil mieten in Hannover - CU Camper. Sobald das Reisen nach und durch Frankreich wieder uneingeschränkt mit dem Wohnmobil möglich ist, lohnt sich aus vielerlei Gründen eine Tour durch die Bretagne. Wir stellen euch die Region in Norwegens Norden vor - lest hier mehr! We have, first, the simp le fret, No. When s e e n a t a distance, the main lines strike the eye ; as we approach nearer, the detail comes into the composition ; on a closer inspection, we see still further article source on the surface of the ornaments themselves. To t h e artist and those provided with a m i this web page d t o estimate the value o f the beauty to which they gave a life they repeatedLook a n d l e a here n. They have the happy art CГ¤sars World so adapting the ornament to the surface decorated, that the ornament as often appears to have suggested t h e general form as to have been suggested b y i t. In the use of the acanthus leaf the Romans showed but little a r t. Then see more lines giving a circular tendency, as at Cand you have now complete harmony.

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From the Kilpeck Porch, Herefordshire. Mosaics from Sta. Marble Pavement, Agios Pantokrator, Constantinople.

First half of 12th century. Marble Pavement, Sta. Mosaics, Sta. The Centre, from St. Fron a Greek MS.

The border beneath from Monreale. From the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzen. From Greek MSS. Portion of a Greek Diptych.

The fleurs-de-lys are believed to be of later workmanship. Les Arts du Moyen Age. From the Enamelled Tomb of Jean, son of St. Louis, A. Limoges Enamel, probably of the close of 12th century.

Portion of Mastic Pavement, 12th century. Denis, near Paris. Preserved 22, In no branch of art, probably, is the observation, ex n i h i l o n i h i l f i t , m o r e applicable than in decorative art.

Thus, in the Byzantine style, we perceive that various schools have combined to form its peculiar characteristics, and we shall proceed to point out briefly what were the principal formative causes.

Even before the transfer of the s e a t o f t h e R o m a n E m p i r e f r o m R o m e t o Byzantium, at the commencement of the fourth century, we see all the arts in a state either of decline or transformation.

Mosaics opus Grecanicum from Monreale Cathedral, near Palermo. Mosaics from the Church of Ara Coeli, Rome.

Monreale Cathedral. Marble Pavement, St. From San Lorenzo Fuori, Rome. San Lorenzo Fuori, Rome. Ara Coeli, Rome. From the Cathedral, Monreale.

From Ara Coeli, Rome. Marble Pavement, S. Maggiore, Rome. Marble Pavement, San Vitale, Ravenna. Baptistery of St.

Mark, Venice. SanGiovanni Laterano, Rome. San Lorenzo, Rome. San Giovanni Laterano, Rome. From the Baptistery, St. From the Duomo, Monreale.

Certain as i t i s t h a t R o m e had given her peculiar style of a r t t o t h e numerous foreign peoples ranged beneath her sway, i t i s no less certain t h a t t h e h y b r i d art of her provinces had powerfully reacted o n t h e c e n t e r of civilization ; and even at t h e c l o s e of t h e t h i r d century had materially affected that lavish style of decoration which characterised the magnificent baths and other public buildings of Rome.

The necessity which Constantine found himself u n d e r, when newly settled in Byzantium, of employing Oriental artists and workmen, wrought a still more vital and marked change in t h e traditional style ; and there c a n b e l i t t l e doubt b u t t h a t each surrounding nation a i d e d in g i v i n g i t s i m p r e s s to t h e n e w l y -formed school, according t o t h e state o f i t s civilisation and its capacity for Art, u n t i l a t last the motley mass became fused into one systematic whole during the long and for Art prosperous reign of the first Justinian.

T H E vagueness with which writers on Art have treated the Byzantine and Romanesque styles of Architecture, even to within the last few years, has extended itself also to their concomitant decoration.

Sofia at Constantinople, that we could obtain any complete and definite idea of what constituted pure Byzantine ornament.

San Vitale at Ravenna, though thoroughly Byzantine a s t o its architecture, still afforded us but a very incomplete notion of Byzantine ornamentation : San Marco at Venice represented b u t a phase of the Byzantine school ; and the Cathedral of Monreale, and other examples of the same style in Sicily, served only to show the influence, but hardly to illustrate the true nature, of pure Byzantine Art : Owen Jones.

On t h e f r i e z e of the theatre at T Patara a , a n d a t t h e Temple of Venus at Aphrodisia s Caria , are to be seen examples of flowing foliage such as we allude to.

Placing on o n e s i d e t h e question of how far Byzantine workmen or artists were employed in Europe, t h e r e c a n b e no possible doubt that the character of the Byzantine school of ornament is very strongly impressed on all the earlier works of central and even Western Europe, which are generically termed Romanesque.

Pure Byzantine ornament is distinguished by broad-toothed and acute-pointed leaves, which in springings of the teeth w i t h d e e p holes ; the running foliage is generally thin and continuous, as at Nos.

The ground, whether in mosaic or painted work, is almost universally gold ; t h i n i n t e r l a c e d patterns are preferred to g e o m e t r i c a l d e s i g n s.

The introduction of animal or o t h e r f i g u r e s is very limited in sculpture, and in colour is confined principally to holy subjects, in a stiff, conventional style, exhibiting little variety or feeling ; sculpture f in the accompanying example from Sta.

Sofia f ; and at a later period, i. Romanesque ornament, o n t h e other hand, depended mainly on sculpture for effect : i t i s rich in light and shade, deep cuttings, massive projections, a n d a great intermixture of figure-subjects of every kind with foliage and conventional ornament.

The place of mosaic work is generally supplied by paint ; in coloured ornament, animals are as freely introduced as in sculpture, vide No.

Interesting and instructive as i t i s t o trace the derivation of these forms in the Byzantine style, it is no less so to m a r k t h e transmission of them a n d o f others t o l a t e r epochs.

Thus in No. This a r t flourished principally in the t w e l f t h and thirteenth centuries, and consists in the arrangement of small diamond- Texier and i n Salzenberg, reappear at S t a.

The curved and foliated branch The examples from central Italy, such as Nos. Sofia is seen reproduced, distinct styles of design coexistent in Sicily : the one, such as we have noted, consisting of diagonal with slight variation, at N o.

Sofia ; and be- may recognise, if not the hand, at least the influence, of Byzantine artists. Denis we have one instance out of numbers of the reproduction so common at Sta.

Sofia, as seen at Nos. Some are more markedly Byzantine, however, as No. The pavements of the Romanesque churches in I t a l y are rich in examples of this class; the tradition of which was handed down from the Augustan age of Rome ; a good idea of the nature of this ornament is given in Nos.

Local styles, on the system of marble inlay, existed in several parts of Italy during the Romanesque period, which bear little relation either to Roman or Byzantine models.

Such is No. Important as we perceive the influence of Byzantine Art to have been in Europe, from the sixth to the eleventh century, and still later, there is no people whom it affected more than t h e g r e a t and spreading Arab race, who propagated the creed of Mahomet, conquered the finest countries of the East, and finally obtained a footing even in Europe.

In the earlier buildings executed by them at Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Cordova, and Sicily, the influence of the Byzantine style is very strongly marked.

The traditions o f t h e Byzantine school affected more o r l e s s all the adjacent countries ; in Greece they remained almost unchanged to a v e r y late period, and they have served, in a great degree, as the basis to all decorative art in t h e E a s t and in Eastern Europe.

September, Alt Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel. Voyage en Perse. Die Ornamentik des Mittelalters.

La Basilica di San Marco. Recherches sur les Monuments de Normands en Sicile. Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages.

Architectural Arts in Italy and Spain. Architectural Studies at Burgos and its Neighbourhood. ET Owen Jones.

They are executed in plaster, and nearly all the windows are of a different pattern. The main arches of the building are decorated in the same way ; but only a fragment of one of the soffits now remains, sufficiently large to make out the design.

The rest of the patterns are from their soffits and jambs. The Mosque of Tooloon was founded A. It i s t h e oldest Arabian building in Cairo, and is specially interesting as one of the earliest known examples of the pointed arch.

From the Parapet of the Mosque of Sultan Kalaoon. NasiEn Mosque the in Arches 9, Ornaments on the Mosque of Kalaoon. Wooden Stringcourse Pulpit.

From the Mosque of Kalaoon. Sultan Kalaoon. All these ornaments are executed in plaster, and seem to have been cut on the stucco while still wet.

There is too great a variety on the patterns, and even disparities on the corresponding parts of the same pattern, to allow of their having been cast or struck from moulds.

Curved Architraves from ditto. Soffit of Arch, Mosque En Nasireeyeh. From Door in the Mosque El Barkookeyeh. Wooden Architrave, Mosque En Nasireeyeh.

Soffit of Window, Mosque of Kalaoon. Wooden Architraves. Frieze round Tomb, Mosque En Nasireeyeh. Wooden Architrave. Ornaments from various Mosques.

The ornament on the white marble on the centre of No. They are The materials for these five Plates have been kindly furnished by Mr.

James William Wild, who passed a considerable time in Cairo studying the interior decoration of the Arabian houses, and they may be regarded as very faithful transcripts of Cairean ornament.

The a r t o f Byzantium already displays an Asiatic influence. The ornament we engrave here from Sta. Sophia would oftentimes most ingenious, decoration for c l o s e inspection.

Generally there w a s m o r e variety in their surface treatment ; the feathering which forms so prominent a f e a t u r e o n the ornaments on seem to be one of the earliest examples of the change.

T h e u p r i g h t patterns on this Plate, chiefly from the soffits of windows, and therefore having all an upright tendency in their lines , may be considered as the g e r m s o f a l l those exquisitely-designed patterns of t h i s c l a s s , where the r e p e t i t i o n o f the s a m e p a t t e r n s s i d e b y s i d e produces another or several others.

Generally, the main differences that exist b e t w e e n t h e Arabian a n d M o r e s q u e styles may be summed u p t h u s , the constructive features of t h e A r a b s possess more grandeur, and those o f t h e Moors more refinement and elegance.

The progress which the style h a d m a d e in this period may be s e e n a t a glance. To exhibit clearly the difference, we r e p e a t t h e Arabian ornament, N o.

The Moors also introduced a n o t h e r f e a t u r e into their surface ornament, v i z. The ornaments on the Owen Jones.

We r e i t n o t f o r t h e introduction of flowers, which rather destroy t h e u n i t y o f t h e s t y l e , a n d which b e t r a y a Persian influence, it w o u l d b e impossible to find a better specimen of Arabian ornament.

No better idea c a n b e obtained of what style in o r n a m e n t consists than by comparing the mosaics on P l a t e X X X V.

There is scarcely a form to be found in a n y o n e which does n o t e x i s t in all the others. Yet how strangely different is the a s p e c t o f t h e s e plates!

I t is l i k e a n idea expressed in four different languages. The mind receives from e a c h t h e s a m e modified conception, by the sounds so widely differing.

T The twisted cord, the interlacing o f lines, the crossing of two squares , t h e equilateral triangle arranged within a hexagon, are the starting-points in each ; the m a i n differences resulting in the scheme of colouring, w hich the material employed a n d t h e uses t o w h i c h they were applied, mainly suggested.

The A r a b i a n a n d the Roman are pavements, and o f l o w e r tones ; t h e Moresque are dados ; whilst those of the brighter hues, o n P l a t e XXX.

From a Fountain at Pera, Constantinople. From the Mosque of Sultan Achmet, Constantinople. From Tombs at Constantinople.

From the Tomb of Sultan Soliman I. From a Fountain at Tophana, Constantinople. T H E architecture of t h e T u r k s , as s e e n a t Constantinople, is in all its structural features mainly based upon the early Byzantine monuments ; their system of ornamentation, however, i s a modification of the Arabian, bearing about the same relation to this style as Elizabethan ornament does to Italian Renaissance.

When t h e a r t of one p e o p l e i s adopted b y a n o t h e r having the same religion, but differing in natural character and instincts, we should expect to find a deficiency in all those qualities in which the borrowing people are inferior to their predecessors.

We are, however, inclined to believe t h a t t h e Turks have rarely themselves practised the arts ; but that t h e y h a v e r a t h e r c o m m a n d e d the execution than been themselves executants.

On t h e s a m e buildings, side by side with ornaments derived from Arabian and Persian floral ornaments, we find debased Roman and Renaissance details, leading to the belief that these buildings have mostly been executed by artists differing in religion from themselves.

In more recent times, the Turks have been the first of the Mohammedan Owen Jones. The only examples we have of perfect ornamentation are t o b e found i n T u r k e y carpets ; but The productions of the T u r k s a t t h e Great Exhibition of w e r e t h e least perfect of all the Mohammedan exhibiting nations.

The d e s i g n s a r e thoroughly Arabian, differing from Persian carpets in being much more conventional i n t h e treatment In Mr.

The general principles of the distribution of form are t h e s a m e , but there are a few minor differences that it will be desirable to point out.

The surface of an ornament both i n t h e Arabian and Moresque styles is only slightly rounded, and the enrichment of the surface is obtained by sinking lines on this surface ; or where the surface was left plain, the additional pattern upon pattern was obtained by painting.

The Turkish ornament, o n t h e contrary, presents a carved surface, and such ornaments as we find p a i n t e d i n the A r a b i a n M S S.

Another peculiarity, a n d o n e w h i c h a t once distinguishes a p i e c e o f Turkish ornament from Arabian, is the great abuse which was made of the re-entering curve A A.

This is very prominent i n t h e Arabian, but more especially in the Persian styles. With the Moors it is no longer a feature, and appears only exceptionally.

This peculiarity was adopted i n t h e Elizabethan ornament, which, through the Renaissance of France and Italy, was derived from the East, in imitation of the damascened work which was at that period so common.

It is very difficult, nay, almost impossible, thoroughly to explain by words differences in style of A ornament having such a strong family resemblance as the Persian, Arabian, and Turkish ; yet the eye Turkish.

The general principles remaining the same in the Persian, the Arabian, and the Turkish styles of ornament, there will be found a peculiarity in the proportions of the masses, more or less grace in the flowing of the curves, a fondness for particular directions i n t h e leading lines, and a peculiar mode of interweaving forms, the general form of the conventional leafage ever remaining the same.

The relative degree of fancy, delicacy, or coarseness, with which these are drawn, will at once distinguish them as the works of the refined and spiritual Persian, the not less refined but reflective Arabian, or the unimaginative Turk.

One great feature of Turkish ornament is the predominance of green and black ; and, in fact, i n t h e modern decoration of Cairo the same thing is observed.

Green is much more prominent than in ancient examples where blue is chiefly used. Plaster Ornaments, used as upright and horizontal Bands enclosing Panels on the walls.

Square Stops in the Bands of the Inscriptions. From the centre Arch of the Court of the Lions.

From the Arches of the Hall of Justice. Ornament in Panels from the Hall of the Boat. Ornament in Panels of the Hall of the Ambassadors.

Ornaments in Panels, Court of the Mosque. Soffit of Great Arch, entrance to Court of Fish-pond.

Ornaments in Spandrils of Arches, Hall of the Abencerrages. Ornaments in Panels, Hall of Ambassadors. Panelling in Windows, Hall of the Ambassadors.

Frieze over Columns, Court of the Lions. Panelling of the centre Recess of the Hall of the Ambassadors. Panelling on the Walls, Tower of the Captive.

Panelling on the Walls, House of Sanchez. Part of the Ceiling of the Portico of the Court of the Fish-pond. Pilaster, Hall of the Ambassadors.

Dado, ditto. Dado, Hall of the Two Sisters. Dados, Hall of the Two Sisters. Pilaster, Hall of Justice. Dado in centre Window, Hall of the Ambassadors.

Dado, Hall of Justice. Dados, Hall of the Ambassadors. From a Column, Hall of Justice. Dado in the Baths. Dado in Divan, Court of the Fish-pond.

O U R illustrations of the ornament of the Moors have been taken exclusively from the Alhambra, not only because i t i s t h e o n e of their works with which we are best acquainted, but also because it i s t h e o n e i n w h i c h t h e i r marvellous system of decoration reached its culminating p o i n t.

The Alhambra is at the very summit of perfection of Moorish art, as is the Parthenon of Greek art. We can find no work so f i t t e d t o illustrate a G r a m m a r of Ornament a s t h a t i n which every ornament contains a grammar in itself.

Every principle which we can derive from the study of the ornamental art of any o t h e r p e o p l e i s not only ever present here, but w a s b y t h e Moors more universally and truly obeyed.

We find in the Alhambra the speaking art of the Egyptians, the natural grace and refinement of t h e G r e e k s , the geometrical combination s o f t h e Romans, t h e Byzantines, a n d t h e Arabs.

The ornament wanted but one charm, which was the peculiar feature of the Egyptian ornament, symbolism. This t h e r e l i g i o n o f the Moors forbade ; but the w a n t w a s m o r e than supplied by the inscriptions, which, addressing themselves to the eye by their outward beauty, at once excited the intellect by the difficulties of deciphering their curious and complex involutions, and delighted the imagination when read, by the beauty of the sentiments they expressed and the music of their composition.

To t h e artist and those provided with a m i n d t o estimate the value o f the beauty to which they gave a life they repeated , Look a n d l e a r n.

To the people they proclaim ed the might, majesty, and good d e e d s o f t h e k i n g. T o t h e king himself they never ceased declarin g that there was none powerful b u t G o d , that He alone was conqueror, and that to Him alone was for ever due praise and glory.

It is asserted in the inscrip tions on the walls, that this buildin g surpas sed all other buildin gs ; that at sight of its wonderful domes all other domes vanishe d and disappe ared ; in the playfu l exagge ration of their poetry, that the stars grew pale i n their light throug h envy of so much beauty ; and, what is more to our purpos e, they declare t h a t h e who should study them with attenti on would reap the benefi t of a commentary on decoration.

The princip les which are everyw here the s a m e , the forms only differ. They ever regard the useful as a vehicle for the beauti ful ; a n d i n t h i s they do not stand alone : the same princip le was observ ed in all the best period s of a r t : i t i s only when art decline s that true princip les come to be disrega rded ; or, in an age of copyin g, like the presen t, when the works of the past are reprod uced withou t the spirit which animat ed the origina ls.

All lines grow o u t o f e a c h other in gradua l undula tions ; t h e r e a r e n o excres cences ; nothing could be remove d and leave the design equally good or better.

In a genera l sense, if constru ction be proper ly attend ed to, there c o u l d b e no excres cences ; but we use the word here in a more limited sense : the genera l lines might follow truly the constru ction, and y e t t h e r e might be excres cences , such as knobs or bosses, which would n o t v i o l a t e the rule of constru ction, and yet w o u l d b e fatal to beauty of f o r m , if they d i d n o t grow out gradua lly from the genera l lines.

There c a n b e n o beauty of form, no perfec t propor tion or arrang ement of lines, which does not produc e repose.

All transit ions of curved l i n e s from curved , o r o f c u r v e d lines from straigh t, must be gradua l.

Where t w o curves are separa te d b y a break as in this case , they must, and with the Moors always A C B DD do, run parallel t o a n imagin ary line c where the curves would be tangential to each other : for were either to depart from this, as in the case at D , t h e eye, instead of following gradua lly down the curve, would run outwar ds, and repose would be lost.

The general forms were first cared for ; these were subdivided by general lines ; the interstices were then filled in with ornament, which was again subdivided and enriched for closer inspection.

They carried out this principle with the greatest refinement, and the harmony and beauty of all their ornamentation derive their chief success from its observance.

Their main divisions contrast and balance admirably : the greatest distinctness is obtained ; the detail never interferes with the general form.

When s e e n a t a distance, the main lines strike the eye ; as we approach nearer, the detail comes into the composition ; on a closer inspection, we see still further detail on the surface of the ornaments themselves.

Harmony of form appears to consist in the proper balancing and contrast of the straight, the inclined, and the curved. As in colour there can be no perfect composition in which either of the three primary colours is wanting, so in form, whether structural or decorative, there can be no perfect composition in which either o f t h e t h r e e primary figures is wanting ; and the varieties and harmony in composition and design depend on the various predominance and subordination o f t h e three.

Then add lines giving a circular tendency, as at C , and you have now complete harmony. In this case the square is the A B C leading form or tonic ; t h e a n g u l a r a n d curved are subordinate.

In the surface decorations of the Moors all lines flow out of a parent stem : every ornament, however distant, can be traced to its branch and root.

They have the happy art of so adapting the ornament to the surface decorated, that the ornament as often appears to have suggested t h e general form as to have been suggested b y i t.

In a l l c a s e s we find the foliage flowing out of a parent stem, and we are never offended, E D F a s i n m o d e r n practice, by t h e r a n d o m introduction of an ornament just dotted down, without a reason for its existence.

Gothic architecture also offers many illustrations of this principle ; every tendency of lines to run in one direction is immediately counteracted by the angular or the curved : thus, the capping of the buttress is exactly what is required to counteract the upward tendency of the straight lines ; so the gable contrasts admirably with the curved windowhead and its perpendicular mullions.

If children were born and bred to the sound of hurdy-gurdies grinding out of tune, their ears would no doubt suffer deterioration, and they would lose their sensibility to the harmonious in sound.

This, then, is what is certainly taking place with regard to form, and it requires the most strenuous efforts to be made by all who would take an interest in the welfare of the rising generation to put a stop to it.

They appear i n t h i s t o w o r k b y a process analogous to t h a t o f nature, as we s e e i n t h e vine-leaf ; the object being to distribute the sap from the parent stem to the extremities, it is evident the main stem would divide the leaf as near as may be into equal areas.

So, again, of the minor divisions ; each area is again subdivided by intermediate lines, which all follow the same law of equal distribution, even to the most minute filling-in of the sap-feeders.

The Moors also follow another principle ; that of radiation from the parent stem, as we may see in n a t u r e w i t h t h e human hand, or in a chestnut leaf.

We m a y s e e i n the example how beautifully all these lines radiate from the parent stem ; how each leaf diminishes towards the extremities, and how each area is in proportion to the leaf.

The Orientals carry out this principle with marvellous perfection ; so also did the Greeks in their honeysuckle ornament.

We have already remarked, in Chapter I V. This is generally the case with Greek ornament ; the acanthus-leaf scrolls are a series of leaves growing out one from the other in a continuous line, whilst the Arabian and Moresque ornaments always grow out of a continuous stem.

All junctions of curved lines with curved, or of curved with straight, should be tangential to each other ; this also we consider t o b e a l a w found everywhere in n a t u r e , a n d t h e Oriental practice i s always in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h it.

Many o f t h e Moorish ornaments are on the same principle which is observable in the lines of a feather and in the articulations of every l e a f ; a n d t o t h i s i s d u e t h a t additional c h a r m f o u n d in a l l p e r f e c t ornamentation, which w e c a l l the graceful.

It m a y b e c a l l e d the melody of form, as what we have before described constitutes its harmony. We shall find these laws of equal distribution, r a d i a t i o n f r o m a p a re n t s t e m , continuity of line, and tangential curvature, ever present in natural leaves.

We would call attention to the nature of the exquisite curves in u s e by t h e A r a b s and Moors. The researches of Mr.

Penrose have shown that the mouldings and curved lines in t h e Parthenon are all portions of curves of a very high order, and that segments of circles were very rarely used.

The exquisite curves o f t h e Greek vases are well known, and here we never find portions of circles. In Roman architecture, on the contrary, this refinement is lost ; the Romans were probably as little able to describe as to appreciate curves o f a high o r d e r, a n d w e f i n d , therefore, their mouldings mostly parts of circles, which could be struck with compasses.

So we think that compositions distributed in equal lines or divisions will be less beautiful than those which require a higher mental effort to appreciate them.

T In the early works o f t h e Gothic period, the tracery would appear to have been much less the offspring of compass-wor k t h a n i n t h e later period, which has most appropriately been termed the Geometrical, from the immoderate use of compass-work.

There is a curve A common to Greek Art, t o t h e Gothic period, and so much delighted i n b y the Mohammeda n races.

This becomes graceful the more it departs from the curve which the union of two parts of circles would give. A still further charm i s f o u n d in the works of the Arabs and Moors from their conventional treatment of ornament, which, forbidden as they were by their creed to represent living forms, they carried to the highest perfection.

They ever worked as nature worked, but always avoided a direct transcript ; they took her principles, but did not, as we do, attempt to copy her works.

In this, again, they do not stand alone : in every period of faith in art, all ornamentatio n was ennobled by the ideal ; never was the sense of propriety violated by a too faithful representatio n of nature.

Thus, in Egypt, a lotus carved in stone was never such an one as you might have plucked, but a conventional representation perfectly in keeping with the architectural members of which it formed a part ; it was a symbol of the power of the king over countries where the lotus grew, and added poetry to what would otherwise have been a rude support.

The colossal statues of the Egyptian s were not little men carved on a large scale, but architectural representations of Majesty, in which were symbolised the power of the monarch , and his abiding love of his people.

I n G r e e k art, the ornament s, no longer symbols, a s i n Egypt, were still further conventio nalised ; and in their sculptur e applied to architecture, they adopted a conventio nal treatmen t both of pose and relief very different to that of their isolated works.

In the best periods of Gothic a r t t h e floral ornamen ts are treated conventio nally, a n d a direct imitation of n a t u r e i s never attempte d ; b u t a s a r t declined , they became less idealised , and more direct in imitation.

The same decline may be traced in stained glass, where both figures and ornamen ts were treated at first conventionally ; b u t a s t h e art declined, figures and draperies , through which light was to be transmitt ed, had their own shades and shadows.

In all a r c h a i c s t y l e s of art, practis ed during period s of faith, the s a m e t r u e princip les prevai l ; and althou gh we find in all somew hat of a local or tempo rary charac ter, we yet discer n in all much that is eterna l and immut able ; the same grand ideas embod ied in differe nt forms, and expres sed, so to speak, in a differe nt langua ge.

The ancient s always used colour to assist in the develo pment of form, always employ ed it as a further means of bringin g out the constru ctive feature s of a buildin g.

In Gothic architecture, also, colour was always employed to assist in developing the forms of the panel-work and tracery ; and this is effected to an extent of which it is difficult to form an idea, in the present colourless condition o f t h e buildings.

I n t h e slender shafts of their lofty edifices, the idea of elevation was still further increased by upward-running spiral lines of colour, which, while adding to the apparent height of the column, also helped to define its form.

In Oriental art, again, we always find the constructive lines of the building well defined by colour ; an apparent additional height, length, breadth, or bulk, always results from its judicious application ; and with the ornaments in relief it developes constantly new forms which would have been altogether lost without it.

The artists have i n t h i s b u t followed the guiding inspiration of Nature, in whose works every transition of form is accompanied by a modification of colour, so disposed as to assist in producing distinctness of expression.

For example, flowers are separated by colour from their leaves and stalks, and these again from the earth in which they grow.

We all know how much the absence or impairment of these colours, as in sickness, contributes to deprive the features of their proper meaning and expression.

Had nature applied but one colour to all objects, they would have been indistinct in form as well as monotonous in a s p e c t. It i s t h e boundless variety of her tints that perfects the modelling and defines the outline of each ; detaching equally the modest lily from the grass from which it springs, and the glorious sun, parent of all colour, from the firmament in which it shines.

The colours employed by t h e M o o r s on their stucco-work were, in all cases, the primaries, blue, red, and yellow gold. The secondary colours, purple, green, and orange, occur only i n t h e Mosaic dados, which, being near the eye, formed a point of repose from the more brilliant colouring above.

It is t r u e t h a t , at the present day, the grounds of many of the ornaments are found to be green ; it will always be found, however, on a minute examination, that the colour originally employed was blue, which being a metallic pigment, has become green from the effects of time.

This is proved by the presence of the particles of blue colour, which occur everywhere in the crevices : in t h e restorations, also, which were made by the Catholic kings, the grounds of the ornaments were repainted both green and purple.

It may be remarked that, among the Egyptians and the Greeks, the Arabs and the Moors, the primary colours were almost entirely, if not exclusively, employed during the early periods of art ; whilst during the decadence, the secondary colours became of more importance.

Thus, in Egypt, in Pharaonic temples, we find the primary colours predominating ; in the Ptolemaic temples, the secondary : so also on the early Greek temples are found the primary colours, whilst at Pompeii every variety of shade and tone was employed.

In modern Cairo, and in the East generally, we have green constantly appearing side by side with red, where blue would have been used in earlier times.

This is equally true of the works of the Middle Ages. In the early manuscripts and in stained glass, though other colours were not excluded, the primaries were chiefly used ; whilst in later times we have every variety of shade and tint, but rarely used with equal success.

With t h e M o o r s , as a general rule, the primary colours were u s e d o n t h e upper portions T of objects, the secondary and tertiary on the lower.

This also appears to be in accordance with a natural law ; we have the primary blue in the sky, the secondary green in the trees and fields, ending with the tertiaries on the earth ; as also in flowers, where we generally find the primaries o n t h e buds and flowers, and the secondaries on the leaves and stalks.

The ancients always observed this rule in the best periods of art. In Egypt, however, we do see occasionally the secondary green used in the upper portions of the temples, but this arises from the fact, that ornaments in Egypt were symbolical ; and if a l o t u s l e a f were used on the upper part of a b u i l d i n g , i t would necessarily be coloured green ; b u t t h e l a w i s true i n t h e m a i n ; the general aspect of an Egyptian temple of the Pharaonic period gives the primaries above and the secondaries below ; b u t i n t h e buildings of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods more especially, this order was inverted, and the palm and lotus-leaf capitals give a superabundance of g r e e n i n t h e upper portions of the temples.

In Pompeii we find sometimes in the interior of the houses a gradual gradation of colour downwards from the roof, from light to dark, ending with black ; b u t t h i s i s b y no means so universal as to convince us that they f e l t i t a s a law.

We have already shown in Chapter V. Although the ornaments which a r e f o u n d i n the Alhambra, a n d i n t h e Court o f t h e L i o n s especially, are at the present day covered with several thin coats of the whitewash which has at various periods been applied to them, we m a y b e s a i d to h a v e a u t h o r i t y for the whole of the colouring of our reproduction ; for not only may the colours be seen in the interstices of the ornaments in many places by scaling off the whitewash, but the colouring of the Alhambra was carried out on so perfect a s y s t e m , t h a t a n y one w h o w i l l m a k e this a s t u d y c a n , with almost absolute certainty, on being shown for the first time a piece of Moorish ornament in white, define at once the manner in which it was coloured.

So completely were all the architectural forms designed with reference to their subsequent colouring, that the surface alone will indicate the colours they were destined to receive.

Thus, in using the colours blue, red, and gold, they took care to place them in such positions that they should be best seen in themselves, and add most to the general effect.

On moulded surfaces they placed red, the strongest colour of the three, in the depths, where it might be softened by shadow, never on the surface ; blue in the shade, and gold on all surfaces exposed to light : for it is evident that by this arrangement alone c o u l d t h e i r t r u e value b e o b t a i n e d.

In colouring the grounds of the various diapers the blue always occupies the largest area ; a n d t h i s i s in accordance with the theory of optics, and the experiments which have been made with the prismatic spectrum.

The rays of light are said to neutralise each o t h e r i n t h e proportions of 3 yellow, 5 r e d , a n d 8 b l u e ; thus, i t requires a quantity o f b l u e e q u a l to the r e d a n d yellow put together to produce a harmonious effect, and prevent the predominance of any one colour over t h e o t h e r s.

In t h e f i r s t series the l i n e s a r e equidistant, diagonally crossed by horizontal and Diagram No. Diagram No.

But the system on which No. The number of patterns that c a n b e produced by these two systems would appear to be infinite ; and it will be seen, on reference t o P l a t e X X X I X.

Any o n e o f t h e s e patterns which w e h a v e engraved might b e made t o c h a n g e its aspect, by bringing into prominence different chains or other general masses.

The general effect of Plate XLI. Composed of but three colours, they are more harmonious and effective than a n y others i n o u r collection, and p o s s e s s a peculiar charm which all the others fail to approach.

The various principles for which we have contended, the constructive idea whereby each leading line r e s t s u p o n a n o t h e r, t h e gradual transitions from curve to curve, the tangential curvatures of t h e lines, the flowing off of the ornaments f r o m a parent s t e m , the tracing of each flower to its branch and root, the division and subdivision of general lines, will readily be perceived in every ornament on the page.

We have lines running horizontally, perpendicularly, and diagonally, again contrasted by circles in opposite directions. So that the most perfect repose is obtained, the tendency of the eye to run in any direction is immediately corrected by lines giving an opposite tendency, and wherever the eye strikes upon the p a t t e r n s i t is inclined t o d w e l l.

We have already suggested, in Chapter IV. The leading lines of the ornaments Nos. Pattern No. Their fondness for geometrical forms is evidenced by t h e g r e a t use they made of mosaics, in which their imagination had full play.

They all arise from the intersection of equidistant lines round fixed centres. Ornaments from Persian MSS. From a Persian MS.

South Kensington Museum. Although presenting considerable grandeur i n t h e m a i n features, the general outlines a r e m u c h less pure, a n d t h e r e would appear t o b e a great want of elegance in all the constructive features as compared with those of Cairo.

Their system of ornamentation also appears to us m u c h l e s s pure t h a n t h e Arabian and Moresque.

The Persians, u n l i k e t h e Arabs a n d t h e Moors, were free to introduce animal life, a n d t h i s mixing u p o f subjects d r a w n f r o m real l i f e i n their decoration led t o a much less pure style of ornament.

Wi t h the Arabs and Moors, ornaments with their inscriptions had to supply every want, and therefore it became of more importance in their structures, and reached a higher point of elaboration.

Persian ornament is a mixed style ; combining the conventional, which is similar to the Arabian, and probably derived f r o m a common origin, with an attempt at the natural, which sometimes has influenced both the Arabian a n d Tu r k i s h styles, and is even felt in portions of the Alhambra.

The decorations of the houses of Cairo and Damascus, the mosques and fountains of Constantinople more especially, exhibit this mixed style ; groups of natural flowers are constantly found growing from a vase and enclosed in panels of conventional Arabian ornament.

The ornament of modern India also feels this ever-present influence of the Persian mixed style. The geometrical patterns are purely conventional ornament, and have great affinity with the Arabian, but are less perfect in distribution.

The patterns on P l a t e X LV. Compared w i t h t h e Arabian a n d Moresque mosaics, they e x h i b i t a marked inferiority, both i n t h e distribution of form and in the arrangement of colour.

Compared with t h e Arabian MSS. Plate XXIV. However, the same general principles prevail. The designs exhibit much elegance, and there is great simplicity and ingenuity displayed in the conventional rendering of natural flowers.

When natural flowers are used as decoration, and subjected t o a geometrical arrangement, they can have neither shade nor shadow, as was the case with the later MSS.

Ornaments from Works in Metal, exhibited in the Indian Collection in T H E Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations in was barely opened to the public ere attention was directed to the gorgeous contributions of India.

United by a common faith, their art had necessarily a common expression, this expression varying in each according to the influence to which each nation was subject.

The Tunisian still retaining the art of the Moors who created the Alhambra ; the Turk exhibiting the same art, but modified by the character of the mixed population over which they rule ; the Indian uniting the severe forms of Arabian art with the graces of Persian refinement.

All the laws of the distribution of form which we have already observed in the Arabian and Moresque Ornament are equally to be found in the productions of India.

The same division and subdivision of their general lines, which forms the charms of Moresque ornament, is equally to be found here ; the difference which creates t h e s t y l e i s n o t one of principle, but of individual expression.

In the Indian style ornaments are somewhat more flowing and less conventionalised, and have, doubtless, been more subjected to direct Persian influence.

The ingenious way in which the full-blown flower is shown in N o. The intention of The u n i t y o f t h e surface of the object decorated is not destroyed, as it w o u l d b e b y t h e European method o f m a k i n g t h e flower as near l i k e a n a t u r a l flower as possible, with its own light and shade and shadow, tempting you to p l u c k i t f r o m t h e surface.

In the application of the various ornaments to the different portions of the objects the greatest judgment is always shown.

The ornament is invariably in perfect scale with the position it occupies ; on the narrow necks of t h e H o o k h a s a r e the small pendent flowers, the swelling forms of the base are occupied by the larger patterns ; at the lower edge, again, appear ornaments having an upward tendency, and, at the same time, forming a continuous line round the form to prevent the eye running o u t o f i t.

Whenever narrow flowing borders are u s e d , as in N o. In the equal distribution of the surface ornament over the grounds, the Indians exhibit an instinct Owen Jones.

The exact balance obtained by the gold embroidery on the green and r ed grounds was so perfect, that it was beyond the power o f a E u r o p e a n hand to copy it with the same complete balance of form and colour.

The way in which the colours are fused in all their woven fabrics, so as to obtain what they always appear to seek, viz. A due regard to economy in the production of o u r P l a t e s h a s necessarily limited the number of printings, and we have not always, therefore, been able to obtain the proper balance of colour.

The Indian collection at South Kensington Museum should be visited and studied b y a l l i n any way connected w i t h t h e production of woven fabrics.

All the examples show the nicest adjustment of the massing of the ornament to the colour of the ground ; every colour or tint, from the palest and most delicate to the d e e p e s t a n d r i c h e s t s h a d e s , receiving j u s t t h e a m o u n t o f ornament t h a t i t is a d a p t e d to bear.

When gold ornaments are used on a coloured ground, where gold is used in large masses, there the ground is darkest. Where the g o l d i s used more thinly, there t h e g r o u n d i s lighter and more delicate.

When a gold ornament alone is used on a coloured ground, the colour o f t h e ground is carried into it by ornaments or hatchings worked in the ground-colours on the gold itself.

When ornaments in one colour are on a ground of c o n t r a s t i n g colour, the ornament is separated from the ground by an edging of a lighter colour, to prevent all harshness of contrast.

When, on the contrary, ornaments in a colour are on a gold ground, the ornaments are separated from the gold ground by an edging of a darker colour, to prevent the gold overpowering the ornament.

In other cases, where varieties of colour are used on a coloured ground, a general outline of gold, of silver, or of white or yellow silk, separates the ornament f r o m t h e ground, g i v i n g a general tone throughout.

The carpets and low-toned combinations of colour, a black general outline is used for this purpose. The object always appears to be, in the woven fabrics especially, that each ornament should be softly, not harshly, defined ; that coloured objects viewed at a distance should p r e s e n t a neutralised bloom ; that each step nearer should exhibit fresh beauties ; and a close inspection, the means whereby these effects are produced.

The general proportions of the leading lines of the pattern, the skilful distribution of the flowers over the surface, and, notwithstanding the intricacy, the perfect continuity of the lines of the stalks, place i t f a r b e f o r e any European effort of this class.

Burmese, of Glass. Burmese Shrine. Burmese Standard. From Burmese Shrine. Ornament s fro m t h e C o p i es o f t h e Paintings on the walls of the Caves at Ajunta.

Burmese, from a Monastery near Prome. Burmese Gilt Chest. Hindoo Ornaments. W E have not been able, w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s a t comman d in this country, t o p r o c u r e sufficient illustrations for a fair apprecia tion of the nature of Hindoo ornamen t.

In the works hitherto publishe d on the ancient architect ure of India, sufficien t attention has not been directed to the ornamen tal portions of the building s to enable us t o recognis e the true characte r of Hindoo ornament.

In early publicati ons on t h e a r t o f E g y p t all the works of sculpture and ornamen t were so falsely rendered , that it h a s taken consider able time for the European public to become persuade d that there existed so much grace and refineme nt in the works of the Egyptians.

The Egyptian remains, however , which have been transport ed to this country, the casts of others existing in Egypt, a n d t h e m o r e trustwort hy represen tations which have of late been publishe d, have placed this beyond doubt, and Egyptian art is taking i ts true place in the estimatio n of the public.

Had we possessed only picturesq ue views of the Partheno n and the Temples of Balbeck and Palmyra, we should unhesita tingly have s a i d t h a t t h e Romans were far greater architect s t h a n t h e Greeks.

B u t t h e c o n t o u r o f a single mouldin g from the Partheno n would at once reverse the judgment , and proclaim loudly t h a t w e w e r e viewing the works of a people who had reached the highest point in civilisati on and refineme nt.

As these copies, notwithstanding that t h e y a r e said to be faithful, are y e t b y a European hand, it is difficult to say how far they may be relied upon.

In the subordinate portions, such as the ornaments, at all e v e n t s , t h e r e is so little m a r k e d character, that they might belong to any style.

It is very singular, that in these paintings there should be so little ornament ; a peculiarity that we have observed in several ancient paintings in the possession of the Asiatic Society.

There is a remarkable absence of ornament even on the dresses of the figures. Althoug h ornamen t is most properly an accessory to architect ure, a n d should never be allowed to usurp the place of proper structura l features, or to overload o r to disguise t h e m , i t i s in all cases the very s o u l o f a n architect ural monume nt ; a n d b y t h e o r n a m e n t a l o n e c a n w e judge truly of the amount of care and mind which has been devoted to the work.

All else in any building may be the result of rule and compass , but by the ornamen t of a b u i l d i n g w e c a n best discover how far the architect was at the same time an artist.

In t h i s w o r k n o t only are precise rules laid down for the general arrangem ent of structure s, but also minute direction s are given for the division s and subdivisions of each ornamen t.

In building an edifice, therefore , let all i t s p a r t s , from the basemen t to the roof, be duly considered. From which it is apparent t h a t t h e h i g h e r the c o l u m n t h e l e s s it will diminish ; and that this was done because the apparent diminuti on of the diameter in columns of the same proporti on is always greater accordin g to the height.

T h e b e s t specime ns of Hindoo ornamen t we have been able to procure are represent ed in Plate LVI. The ornamen ts are very beautifu lly executed , and evidentl y betray Greek influenc e.

The ornamen t No. I n t h e s a c r e d books quoted b y R a m Raz are several direction s to ornamen t the various architectural members with l o t u s e s a n d jewels ; which seem to b e t h e c h i e f types of the decorati on on the mouldin gs.

The architect ural features of Hindoo building s consist chiefly of mouldin gs heaped up one over the other. Definite instructi ons are quoted b y R a m R a z for the varying proporti ons of each, and it is evident t h a t t h e whole value of the style will consist i n t h e m o r e o r less perfectio n with which these transitio ns a r e effected ; but, as we said before, we have no opportun ity of judging how far this is the case.

The Ornaments, Nos. The Ornament s, Nos. In the concepti on of pure form they are even behind the New Zealande r ; but they possess, in common with all Eastern nations, the happy i n s t i n c t o f harmonis ing colours.

T h e g e n e r a l f o r m s of many of the Chinese porcelain vases are remarkab le for the beauty of their outline, b u t n o t m o r e so t h a n t h e r u d e water-bo ttles of porous clay which the untutore d Arabian potter fashions daily o n t h e b a n k s o f the Nile, assisted only by the instincts of his gentle race ; and the pure form of the Chinese vases is often destroyed by the addition of grotesqu e or other unmeaning ornamen ts, built u p u p o n t h e surface, not growing f r o m i t : from which w e a rg u e , that they can possess an appreciat ion of form, b u t i n a minor degree.

In their decorati on, both painted and woven, the Chinese exhibit only just so much art as would b e l o n g t o a primitiv e p e o p l e.

T h e i r m o s t successf ul e f f o r t s a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h geometrical combina tions f o r m t h e basis ; b u t e v e n i n t h e s e , wheneve r they depart from patterns formed by the intersect ion of equal lines they appear to have a very imperfec t idea o f t h e distributi on of spaces.

Their i n s t i n c t o f colour enables them, in some measure , to balance form, but when deprived of this a i d t h e y d o not a p p e a r t o b e equally successful.

Patterns 1, 8, 13, 18, 19, being generate d by figures which ensure an equal distribution, are more perfect t h a n N o s.

The Chinese share with the Indian this happy power in their woven fabrics ; and the tone of the ground of any fabric is always in h a r m o n y w i t h the quantity of ornamen t w h i c h i t h a s to support.

The Chinese are certainly colourist s, and a r e a b l e to balance with equal success both the fullest tones of colour and the most delicate shades.

Of purely ornamen tal or conventi onal forms, other than geometr ic patterns, the Chinese possess but very few. On Plate LX.

In a l l c a s e s , however , their instinct restrains t h e m w i t h i n t h e t r u e limit ; and although the arrangem ent is generall y unnatura l and unartisti c, they never, by shades and shadows, as with us, violate consisten cy.

In their printed paper-ha ngings, the whole treatmen t, both of figures, landscap e and ornamen t, is so far conventi onal, that however we may feel it to be unartisti c, we are not s h o c k e d b y an overstep ping of the legitima te bounds o f d e c o r a t i o n.

It i s t h e t a s t e to idealise upon this close observati on which is wanting. We have already referred in the Greek chapter to the peculiari ties of the Chinese fretwork.

The Aberlemno Cross, formed of a single Slab, 7 ft. Orname nt on the Cross in the Church yard of Meigle, Angusshire.

N OTE. It was probabl y borrowe d from the Roman tessellated pavements, on which it is occasionally found : it never occurs in MSS.

Gall and Trinity College , Dublin. Interlaced Ornament, from Irish MS. Angulat ed Orname nt, with interlac ement, from the Bible of St.

Pattern of Angulated Lines, from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. End of 7th century. Interlaced P a n e l , from the Psalter of St.

Augustine in the British Museum. Gregory, in the Library of Rheims. Quatrefoil Interlaced Ornament, from the Rheims Sacramentarium. Angularly Interlaced Ornament, from the Golden Gospels.

Interlaced Ornaments, formed of red dots, from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. Initial Letter, from the Gospels of Lindisfarne.

British Museum. Ornament of angulated Lines, from the Gregorian Gospels. Diagonal Pattern. Spiral Patterns, from Gospels o f Lindisfarne.

Interlaced Ornament, from ditto. Interlaced Animals. Gospels of Mac Durnan. Diagonal Patterns. Gospels o f M a c Durnan. Diagonal Patterns, from Gospels of Lindisfarne.

End of 11th century. Ditto, from the Arundel Psalter, No. Ditto, from the Gospels of Canute, in British Museum. End of 10th century.

Terminal Orname nt of Spiral Pattern, with Birds. Part of large Initial Letter in the Gospels of Lindisfarne.

Real size. T H E genius of the inhabitants of the British Islands has, in all ages, been indicated by productions of a class or style singularly at variance with those of the r e s t o f t h e world.

Peculiar a s a r e our characteristics at the present time, those of our forefathers, from the remotest ages, have been equally so.

In the F i n e A r t s , our immense Druidical temples are still the wonder of the beholder ; and in succeeding ages gigantic stone crosses, sometimes thirty feet high, most elaborately carved and ornamented with devices of a style unlike those of other nations, exhibited the old genius for lapidary erections under a modified form inspired by a new faith.

Augustine in A. Gregory the Great. This statement is most completely borne out by still existing artistic evidences.

Gregory sent into England various copies o f t h e Holy Scriptures, and two of these are still preserved ; one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the other in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

They are copies of the Holy Gospels, written in Italy, in the large uncial or rounded characters common in that country, and destitute of ornament ; t h e initial letter of each Gospel scarcely differing from the ordinary writing of the text, the first line or two being merely written i n r e d i n k , each Gospel preceded by a portrait o f t h e Evangelist one only still remains, namely, that o f S t.

L u k e , seated under a round-headed arch, supported upon marble columns, and ornamented with foliage arranged in a classical manner.

All the most ancient Italian manuscripts are entirely destitute of ornamental elaboration. It is true, indeed, that none of t h e m are dated ; but in some the scribe has inserted his name, which the early annals have enabled us to identify, and thus to fix the period of the execution of the volume.

In this manner the autograph Gospels of S t. Columba ; the Leabhar Dhimma, or Gospels o f S t. Dimma Mac Nathi ; the Bodleian Gospels, written b y M a c Regol ; and the Book of Armagh, have been satisfactorily assigned to periods not later t h a n t h e ninth century.

Vespasian, A 1, generally known under t h e n a m e o f the Psalter of St. Chad; without being perfectly convinced that t h e M S S.

A third species of evidence of t h e g r e a t a n t i q u i t y o f o u r v e r y ancient national manuscripts is afforded by t h e f a c t o f m a n y o f t h e m b e i n g still preserved in various places abroad, whither they were carried by the Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionaries.

The great number of monastic establishments founded by our countrymen in different parts of Europe is matter of historical record ; a n d we need only cite the case o f S t.

Gall, an Irishman, whose name has n o t o n l y b e e n g i v e n t o t h e monastic establishment which he founded, but even to the Canton of Switzerland in which i t i s situated.

The monastic books of this establishment, now transferred to the public library, c o m p r i s e m a n y of the oldest manuscripts in Europe, and include a number of fragments of elaborately-ornamented volumes executed in these islands, and long venerated as relics o f t h e founder.

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The yellow of Pompeii, however, near ly approaches orange, and the red is strongly tinged wit h blue.

The whole style, however, of the deco ration is so capricious that it is beyond the range of true art, and strict criticism cannot be applied to it.

It generally plea ses, but, if not absolutely vulgar, it oftentimes approaches vulg arity. It owes its greatest cha rm to the light, sketchy, free-hand manner of its execution, which it is quite impossible to rend er in any drawing ; and Owen Jones.

Pilaster from the Villa Medici, Rome. Fragments from the Villa Medici, Rome. Pilasters from the Villa Medici, Rome.

Fragments from the Forum of Trajan, Rome. From the Frieze of the Arch of the Goldsmiths, Rome. Brescia, T H E real greatness of the Romans is rather to be seen in their palaces, baths, theatres, aqueducts, and other works of public utility, than in their temple architecture, which being the expression of a religion borrowed from the Greeks, a n d i n w h i c h probably t h e y h a d l i t t l e faith, exhibits a corresponding want of earnestness and art-worship.

In the Roman temple the aim was self-glorification. F r o m t h e base of the column to the apex of the pediment every part is overloaded with ornament, tending rather to dazzle by quantity than to excite admiration by the quality of the work.

The Greek temples when painted were as ornamented as those of the Romans, but with a very different r e s u l t. The ornament was so a r r a n g e d t h a t i t t h r e w a coloured bloom over the whole s t r u c t u r e , a n d i n n o way disturbed the exquisitely designed surfaces which received it.

The Romans ceased to v a l u e t h e general proportions of the s t r u c t u r e a n d the contours of the moulded surfaces, which were entirely destroyed by the elaborate surface-modelling of the ornaments carved on them ; and t h e s e o r n a m e n t s do not grow n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e s u r f a c e , b u t a r e applied o n i t.

T h e acanthus leaves under the modillions, and t h o s e r o u n d t h e b e l l o f t h e Corinthian capitals, are placed one before the other most unartistically.

The fatal facilities which t h e R o m a n system of decorati on gives for manufac turing ornamen t, by applying acanthus leaves to any form a n d i n a n y d irection, is t h e c h i e f c a u s e of the invasion of this ornamen t into most modern works.

I t requires so l i t t l e t h o u g h t , and i s s o complet ely a manufac ture, that it has encourag ed architec ts i n a n i n d o l e n t n e g l e c t o f o n e o f their especial province s, and the interior decorati ons of building s have fallen into hands most unfitted to supply their place.

In the use of the acanthus leaf the Romans showed but little a r t. T h e y received it from the Greeks beautiful ly conventi onalised ; they went much nearer to the general outline, but exaggera ted the surface-d ecoration.

The Greeks confined themselv es to expressin g the principle of the foliation of the leaf, and bestowed all their care in the delicate undulatio ns of its surface.

The ornamen t engraved a t t h e h e a d of t h e c h a p t e r i s typical of all Roman ornamen t, which consists universa lly of a scroll growing out of another scroll, encirclin g a flower or group of leaves.

This example , however , is construc ted o n G r e e k principl es, b u t i s w a n t i n g in Greek refineme nt. The acanthus leaf is a l s o s e e n , as it were, in side elevatio n.

The purely Roman method of using the acanthus leaf is seen in the Corinthi an capitals, and in the Owen Jones. The only difference which exists is in the proportion of the general form of the mass ; the decline in this proportion from that of Jupiter Stator may be seen readily.

How different from the immense variety of Egyptian capitals which arose from the modification of the general p l a n o f the capital, even the introduction of the Ionic volute in the Composite order fails to add a beauty, but rather increases the deformity.

The pilasters from the Villa Medici, Nos. As specimens of modelling and drawing they have strong claims to be admired, but as ornamental accessories to the architectural features of a building they most certainly, from their excessive relief and elaborate surface treatment, are deficient in the first principle, viz.

T h e a m o u n t o f design that can be obtained by working out this principle of leaf within leaf and leaf over leaf is very limited ; and it was not till this principle of one leaf growing out of another in a continuous line was abandoned f o r the adoption o f a continuous stem throwing off ornaments on either side, that pure conventional ornament received any develop-ment.

The earliest examples of the change are found in St. Sophia at Constantinople ; and we introduce here an example front St.

Denis, where, although the s w e l l i n g a t t h e stem and the turned-back leaf at the junction of stem and s t e m h a v e entirely disappeared, the continuous stem is not yet fully developed, as it appears in the narrow border top a n d b o t t o m.

This principle became very common in the illuminated MSS. Denis, Paris. The frieze from the Arch of the Goldsmiths is, on the contrary, defective from the opposite cause.

T We h a v e n o t thought it necessary to give in this series any o f t h e painted decorations of the Romans, of which remains exist in t h e R o m a n b a t h s.

We h a d no reliable materials at command ; and, further, they are so similar to those at Pompeii, and show r a t h e r w h a t t o avoid than what to follow, that w e h a v e thought it sufficient to introduce the two subjects from the Forum of Trajan, in which figures terminating in s c r o l l s m a y b e said t o b e t h e foundation of that prominent feature in their painted decorations.

Temple of Jupiter Stator, Rome. Temple of Vesta, Tivoli. Arch of Trajan, Ancona. Temple of Mars Victor, Rome. Arch of Constantine, Rome. Arch of Titus, Rome.

Pantheon, Rome. The Acanthus, full size, from a Photograph. Interior of Pantheon, Rome. Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome.

Taylor and Cresy, Architects. T Owen Jones. Stone Sculptured Ornament, Sta. Sofia, Constantinople. From the Bronze Gates, Sta. Stone Sculptures, from St.

From a Doorway, preserved at Murrhard Monastery. Composition of Bosses, from St. Sebald, Nuremberg, and the Church of Nosson, Saxony.

John, Gmund, Swabia. From the principal Bronze Door, Monreale, near Palermo. From the Bronze Door of the turies. Duomo, Ravello, near Amalfi.

From the Bronze Door of the Duomo, Trani. From the Porch of Lucca Cathedral. Circa A. From St.

Denis Porch , near Paris. From the Chapel of Heilsbronn, Bavaria. From Bayeux Cathedral. Bayeux Cathedral. From Lincoln Cathedral Porch.

Close of 12th century. From the Kilpeck Porch, Herefordshire. Mosaics from Sta. Marble Pavement, Agios Pantokrator, Constantinople. First half of 12th century.

Marble Pavement, Sta. Mosaics, Sta. The Centre, from St. Fron a Greek MS. The border beneath from Monreale.

From the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzen. From Greek MSS. Portion of a Greek Diptych. The fleurs-de-lys are believed to be of later workmanship.

Les Arts du Moyen Age. From the Enamelled Tomb of Jean, son of St. Louis, A. Limoges Enamel, probably of the close of 12th century.

Portion of Mastic Pavement, 12th century. Denis, near Paris. Preserved 22, In no branch of art, probably, is the observation, ex n i h i l o n i h i l f i t , m o r e applicable than in decorative art.

Thus, in the Byzantine style, we perceive that various schools have combined to form its peculiar characteristics, and we shall proceed to point out briefly what were the principal formative causes.

Even before the transfer of the s e a t o f t h e R o m a n E m p i r e f r o m R o m e t o Byzantium, at the commencement of the fourth century, we see all the arts in a state either of decline or transformation.

Mosaics opus Grecanicum from Monreale Cathedral, near Palermo. Mosaics from the Church of Ara Coeli, Rome. Monreale Cathedral.

Marble Pavement, St. From San Lorenzo Fuori, Rome. San Lorenzo Fuori, Rome. Ara Coeli, Rome. From the Cathedral, Monreale.

From Ara Coeli, Rome. Marble Pavement, S. Maggiore, Rome. Marble Pavement, San Vitale, Ravenna. Baptistery of St. Mark, Venice.

SanGiovanni Laterano, Rome. San Lorenzo, Rome. San Giovanni Laterano, Rome. From the Baptistery, St. From the Duomo, Monreale.

Certain as i t i s t h a t R o m e had given her peculiar style of a r t t o t h e numerous foreign peoples ranged beneath her sway, i t i s no less certain t h a t t h e h y b r i d art of her provinces had powerfully reacted o n t h e c e n t e r of civilization ; and even at t h e c l o s e of t h e t h i r d century had materially affected that lavish style of decoration which characterised the magnificent baths and other public buildings of Rome.

The necessity which Constantine found himself u n d e r, when newly settled in Byzantium, of employing Oriental artists and workmen, wrought a still more vital and marked change in t h e traditional style ; and there c a n b e l i t t l e doubt b u t t h a t each surrounding nation a i d e d in g i v i n g i t s i m p r e s s to t h e n e w l y -formed school, according t o t h e state o f i t s civilisation and its capacity for Art, u n t i l a t last the motley mass became fused into one systematic whole during the long and for Art prosperous reign of the first Justinian.

T H E vagueness with which writers on Art have treated the Byzantine and Romanesque styles of Architecture, even to within the last few years, has extended itself also to their concomitant decoration.

Sofia at Constantinople, that we could obtain any complete and definite idea of what constituted pure Byzantine ornament.

San Vitale at Ravenna, though thoroughly Byzantine a s t o its architecture, still afforded us but a very incomplete notion of Byzantine ornamentation : San Marco at Venice represented b u t a phase of the Byzantine school ; and the Cathedral of Monreale, and other examples of the same style in Sicily, served only to show the influence, but hardly to illustrate the true nature, of pure Byzantine Art : Owen Jones.

On t h e f r i e z e of the theatre at T Patara a , a n d a t t h e Temple of Venus at Aphrodisia s Caria , are to be seen examples of flowing foliage such as we allude to.

Placing on o n e s i d e t h e question of how far Byzantine workmen or artists were employed in Europe, t h e r e c a n b e no possible doubt that the character of the Byzantine school of ornament is very strongly impressed on all the earlier works of central and even Western Europe, which are generically termed Romanesque.

Pure Byzantine ornament is distinguished by broad-toothed and acute-pointed leaves, which in springings of the teeth w i t h d e e p holes ; the running foliage is generally thin and continuous, as at Nos.

The ground, whether in mosaic or painted work, is almost universally gold ; t h i n i n t e r l a c e d patterns are preferred to g e o m e t r i c a l d e s i g n s.

The introduction of animal or o t h e r f i g u r e s is very limited in sculpture, and in colour is confined principally to holy subjects, in a stiff, conventional style, exhibiting little variety or feeling ; sculpture f in the accompanying example from Sta.

Sofia f ; and at a later period, i. Romanesque ornament, o n t h e other hand, depended mainly on sculpture for effect : i t i s rich in light and shade, deep cuttings, massive projections, a n d a great intermixture of figure-subjects of every kind with foliage and conventional ornament.

The place of mosaic work is generally supplied by paint ; in coloured ornament, animals are as freely introduced as in sculpture, vide No.

Interesting and instructive as i t i s t o trace the derivation of these forms in the Byzantine style, it is no less so to m a r k t h e transmission of them a n d o f others t o l a t e r epochs.

Thus in No. This a r t flourished principally in the t w e l f t h and thirteenth centuries, and consists in the arrangement of small diamond- Texier and i n Salzenberg, reappear at S t a.

The curved and foliated branch The examples from central Italy, such as Nos. Sofia is seen reproduced, distinct styles of design coexistent in Sicily : the one, such as we have noted, consisting of diagonal with slight variation, at N o.

Sofia ; and be- may recognise, if not the hand, at least the influence, of Byzantine artists. Denis we have one instance out of numbers of the reproduction so common at Sta.

Sofia, as seen at Nos. Some are more markedly Byzantine, however, as No. The pavements of the Romanesque churches in I t a l y are rich in examples of this class; the tradition of which was handed down from the Augustan age of Rome ; a good idea of the nature of this ornament is given in Nos.

Local styles, on the system of marble inlay, existed in several parts of Italy during the Romanesque period, which bear little relation either to Roman or Byzantine models.

Such is No. Important as we perceive the influence of Byzantine Art to have been in Europe, from the sixth to the eleventh century, and still later, there is no people whom it affected more than t h e g r e a t and spreading Arab race, who propagated the creed of Mahomet, conquered the finest countries of the East, and finally obtained a footing even in Europe.

In the earlier buildings executed by them at Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Cordova, and Sicily, the influence of the Byzantine style is very strongly marked.

The traditions o f t h e Byzantine school affected more o r l e s s all the adjacent countries ; in Greece they remained almost unchanged to a v e r y late period, and they have served, in a great degree, as the basis to all decorative art in t h e E a s t and in Eastern Europe.

September, Alt Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel. Voyage en Perse. Die Ornamentik des Mittelalters.

La Basilica di San Marco. Recherches sur les Monuments de Normands en Sicile. Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages. Architectural Arts in Italy and Spain.

Architectural Studies at Burgos and its Neighbourhood. ET Owen Jones. They are executed in plaster, and nearly all the windows are of a different pattern.

The main arches of the building are decorated in the same way ; but only a fragment of one of the soffits now remains, sufficiently large to make out the design.

The rest of the patterns are from their soffits and jambs. The Mosque of Tooloon was founded A.

It i s t h e oldest Arabian building in Cairo, and is specially interesting as one of the earliest known examples of the pointed arch.

From the Parapet of the Mosque of Sultan Kalaoon. NasiEn Mosque the in Arches 9, Ornaments on the Mosque of Kalaoon.

Wooden Stringcourse Pulpit. From the Mosque of Kalaoon. Sultan Kalaoon. All these ornaments are executed in plaster, and seem to have been cut on the stucco while still wet.

There is too great a variety on the patterns, and even disparities on the corresponding parts of the same pattern, to allow of their having been cast or struck from moulds.

Curved Architraves from ditto. Soffit of Arch, Mosque En Nasireeyeh. From Door in the Mosque El Barkookeyeh.

Wooden Architrave, Mosque En Nasireeyeh. Soffit of Window, Mosque of Kalaoon. Wooden Architraves. Frieze round Tomb, Mosque En Nasireeyeh.

Wooden Architrave. Ornaments from various Mosques. The ornament on the white marble on the centre of No. They are The materials for these five Plates have been kindly furnished by Mr.

James William Wild, who passed a considerable time in Cairo studying the interior decoration of the Arabian houses, and they may be regarded as very faithful transcripts of Cairean ornament.

The a r t o f Byzantium already displays an Asiatic influence. The ornament we engrave here from Sta. Sophia would oftentimes most ingenious, decoration for c l o s e inspection.

Generally there w a s m o r e variety in their surface treatment ; the feathering which forms so prominent a f e a t u r e o n the ornaments on seem to be one of the earliest examples of the change.

T h e u p r i g h t patterns on this Plate, chiefly from the soffits of windows, and therefore having all an upright tendency in their lines , may be considered as the g e r m s o f a l l those exquisitely-designed patterns of t h i s c l a s s , where the r e p e t i t i o n o f the s a m e p a t t e r n s s i d e b y s i d e produces another or several others.

Generally, the main differences that exist b e t w e e n t h e Arabian a n d M o r e s q u e styles may be summed u p t h u s , the constructive features of t h e A r a b s possess more grandeur, and those o f t h e Moors more refinement and elegance.

The progress which the style h a d m a d e in this period may be s e e n a t a glance. To exhibit clearly the difference, we r e p e a t t h e Arabian ornament, N o.

The Moors also introduced a n o t h e r f e a t u r e into their surface ornament, v i z. The ornaments on the Owen Jones.

We r e i t n o t f o r t h e introduction of flowers, which rather destroy t h e u n i t y o f t h e s t y l e , a n d which b e t r a y a Persian influence, it w o u l d b e impossible to find a better specimen of Arabian ornament.

No better idea c a n b e obtained of what style in o r n a m e n t consists than by comparing the mosaics on P l a t e X X X V.

There is scarcely a form to be found in a n y o n e which does n o t e x i s t in all the others. Yet how strangely different is the a s p e c t o f t h e s e plates!

I t is l i k e a n idea expressed in four different languages. The mind receives from e a c h t h e s a m e modified conception, by the sounds so widely differing.

T The twisted cord, the interlacing o f lines, the crossing of two squares , t h e equilateral triangle arranged within a hexagon, are the starting-points in each ; the m a i n differences resulting in the scheme of colouring, w hich the material employed a n d t h e uses t o w h i c h they were applied, mainly suggested.

The A r a b i a n a n d the Roman are pavements, and o f l o w e r tones ; t h e Moresque are dados ; whilst those of the brighter hues, o n P l a t e XXX.

From a Fountain at Pera, Constantinople. From the Mosque of Sultan Achmet, Constantinople. From Tombs at Constantinople.

From the Tomb of Sultan Soliman I. From a Fountain at Tophana, Constantinople. T H E architecture of t h e T u r k s , as s e e n a t Constantinople, is in all its structural features mainly based upon the early Byzantine monuments ; their system of ornamentation, however, i s a modification of the Arabian, bearing about the same relation to this style as Elizabethan ornament does to Italian Renaissance.

When t h e a r t of one p e o p l e i s adopted b y a n o t h e r having the same religion, but differing in natural character and instincts, we should expect to find a deficiency in all those qualities in which the borrowing people are inferior to their predecessors.

We are, however, inclined to believe t h a t t h e Turks have rarely themselves practised the arts ; but that t h e y h a v e r a t h e r c o m m a n d e d the execution than been themselves executants.

On t h e s a m e buildings, side by side with ornaments derived from Arabian and Persian floral ornaments, we find debased Roman and Renaissance details, leading to the belief that these buildings have mostly been executed by artists differing in religion from themselves.

In more recent times, the Turks have been the first of the Mohammedan Owen Jones. The only examples we have of perfect ornamentation are t o b e found i n T u r k e y carpets ; but The productions of the T u r k s a t t h e Great Exhibition of w e r e t h e least perfect of all the Mohammedan exhibiting nations.

The d e s i g n s a r e thoroughly Arabian, differing from Persian carpets in being much more conventional i n t h e treatment In Mr.

The general principles of the distribution of form are t h e s a m e , but there are a few minor differences that it will be desirable to point out.

The surface of an ornament both i n t h e Arabian and Moresque styles is only slightly rounded, and the enrichment of the surface is obtained by sinking lines on this surface ; or where the surface was left plain, the additional pattern upon pattern was obtained by painting.

The Turkish ornament, o n t h e contrary, presents a carved surface, and such ornaments as we find p a i n t e d i n the A r a b i a n M S S.

Another peculiarity, a n d o n e w h i c h a t once distinguishes a p i e c e o f Turkish ornament from Arabian, is the great abuse which was made of the re-entering curve A A.

This is very prominent i n t h e Arabian, but more especially in the Persian styles. With the Moors it is no longer a feature, and appears only exceptionally.

This peculiarity was adopted i n t h e Elizabethan ornament, which, through the Renaissance of France and Italy, was derived from the East, in imitation of the damascened work which was at that period so common.

It is very difficult, nay, almost impossible, thoroughly to explain by words differences in style of A ornament having such a strong family resemblance as the Persian, Arabian, and Turkish ; yet the eye Turkish.

The general principles remaining the same in the Persian, the Arabian, and the Turkish styles of ornament, there will be found a peculiarity in the proportions of the masses, more or less grace in the flowing of the curves, a fondness for particular directions i n t h e leading lines, and a peculiar mode of interweaving forms, the general form of the conventional leafage ever remaining the same.

The relative degree of fancy, delicacy, or coarseness, with which these are drawn, will at once distinguish them as the works of the refined and spiritual Persian, the not less refined but reflective Arabian, or the unimaginative Turk.

One great feature of Turkish ornament is the predominance of green and black ; and, in fact, i n t h e modern decoration of Cairo the same thing is observed.

Green is much more prominent than in ancient examples where blue is chiefly used. Plaster Ornaments, used as upright and horizontal Bands enclosing Panels on the walls.

Square Stops in the Bands of the Inscriptions. From the centre Arch of the Court of the Lions. From the Arches of the Hall of Justice. Ornament in Panels from the Hall of the Boat.

Ornament in Panels of the Hall of the Ambassadors. Ornaments in Panels, Court of the Mosque. Soffit of Great Arch, entrance to Court of Fish-pond.

Ornaments in Spandrils of Arches, Hall of the Abencerrages. Ornaments in Panels, Hall of Ambassadors. Panelling in Windows, Hall of the Ambassadors.

Frieze over Columns, Court of the Lions. Panelling of the centre Recess of the Hall of the Ambassadors. Panelling on the Walls, Tower of the Captive.

Panelling on the Walls, House of Sanchez. Part of the Ceiling of the Portico of the Court of the Fish-pond.

Pilaster, Hall of the Ambassadors. Dado, ditto. Dado, Hall of the Two Sisters. Dados, Hall of the Two Sisters.

Pilaster, Hall of Justice. Dado in centre Window, Hall of the Ambassadors. Dado, Hall of Justice. Dados, Hall of the Ambassadors. From a Column, Hall of Justice.

Dado in the Baths. Dado in Divan, Court of the Fish-pond. O U R illustrations of the ornament of the Moors have been taken exclusively from the Alhambra, not only because i t i s t h e o n e of their works with which we are best acquainted, but also because it i s t h e o n e i n w h i c h t h e i r marvellous system of decoration reached its culminating p o i n t.

The Alhambra is at the very summit of perfection of Moorish art, as is the Parthenon of Greek art. We can find no work so f i t t e d t o illustrate a G r a m m a r of Ornament a s t h a t i n which every ornament contains a grammar in itself.

Every principle which we can derive from the study of the ornamental art of any o t h e r p e o p l e i s not only ever present here, but w a s b y t h e Moors more universally and truly obeyed.

We find in the Alhambra the speaking art of the Egyptians, the natural grace and refinement of t h e G r e e k s , the geometrical combination s o f t h e Romans, t h e Byzantines, a n d t h e Arabs.

The ornament wanted but one charm, which was the peculiar feature of the Egyptian ornament, symbolism. This t h e r e l i g i o n o f the Moors forbade ; but the w a n t w a s m o r e than supplied by the inscriptions, which, addressing themselves to the eye by their outward beauty, at once excited the intellect by the difficulties of deciphering their curious and complex involutions, and delighted the imagination when read, by the beauty of the sentiments they expressed and the music of their composition.

To t h e artist and those provided with a m i n d t o estimate the value o f the beauty to which they gave a life they repeated , Look a n d l e a r n.

To the people they proclaim ed the might, majesty, and good d e e d s o f t h e k i n g. T o t h e king himself they never ceased declarin g that there was none powerful b u t G o d , that He alone was conqueror, and that to Him alone was for ever due praise and glory.

It is asserted in the inscrip tions on the walls, that this buildin g surpas sed all other buildin gs ; that at sight of its wonderful domes all other domes vanishe d and disappe ared ; in the playfu l exagge ration of their poetry, that the stars grew pale i n their light throug h envy of so much beauty ; and, what is more to our purpos e, they declare t h a t h e who should study them with attenti on would reap the benefi t of a commentary on decoration.

The princip les which are everyw here the s a m e , the forms only differ. They ever regard the useful as a vehicle for the beauti ful ; a n d i n t h i s they do not stand alone : the same princip le was observ ed in all the best period s of a r t : i t i s only when art decline s that true princip les come to be disrega rded ; or, in an age of copyin g, like the presen t, when the works of the past are reprod uced withou t the spirit which animat ed the origina ls.

All lines grow o u t o f e a c h other in gradua l undula tions ; t h e r e a r e n o excres cences ; nothing could be remove d and leave the design equally good or better.

In a genera l sense, if constru ction be proper ly attend ed to, there c o u l d b e no excres cences ; but we use the word here in a more limited sense : the genera l lines might follow truly the constru ction, and y e t t h e r e might be excres cences , such as knobs or bosses, which would n o t v i o l a t e the rule of constru ction, and yet w o u l d b e fatal to beauty of f o r m , if they d i d n o t grow out gradua lly from the genera l lines.

There c a n b e n o beauty of form, no perfec t propor tion or arrang ement of lines, which does not produc e repose.

All transit ions of curved l i n e s from curved , o r o f c u r v e d lines from straigh t, must be gradua l.

Where t w o curves are separa te d b y a break as in this case , they must, and with the Moors always A C B DD do, run parallel t o a n imagin ary line c where the curves would be tangential to each other : for were either to depart from this, as in the case at D , t h e eye, instead of following gradua lly down the curve, would run outwar ds, and repose would be lost.

The general forms were first cared for ; these were subdivided by general lines ; the interstices were then filled in with ornament, which was again subdivided and enriched for closer inspection.

They carried out this principle with the greatest refinement, and the harmony and beauty of all their ornamentation derive their chief success from its observance.

Their main divisions contrast and balance admirably : the greatest distinctness is obtained ; the detail never interferes with the general form.

When s e e n a t a distance, the main lines strike the eye ; as we approach nearer, the detail comes into the composition ; on a closer inspection, we see still further detail on the surface of the ornaments themselves.

Harmony of form appears to consist in the proper balancing and contrast of the straight, the inclined, and the curved. As in colour there can be no perfect composition in which either of the three primary colours is wanting, so in form, whether structural or decorative, there can be no perfect composition in which either o f t h e t h r e e primary figures is wanting ; and the varieties and harmony in composition and design depend on the various predominance and subordination o f t h e three.

Then add lines giving a circular tendency, as at C , and you have now complete harmony. In this case the square is the A B C leading form or tonic ; t h e a n g u l a r a n d curved are subordinate.

In the surface decorations of the Moors all lines flow out of a parent stem : every ornament, however distant, can be traced to its branch and root.

They have the happy art of so adapting the ornament to the surface decorated, that the ornament as often appears to have suggested t h e general form as to have been suggested b y i t.

In a l l c a s e s we find the foliage flowing out of a parent stem, and we are never offended, E D F a s i n m o d e r n practice, by t h e r a n d o m introduction of an ornament just dotted down, without a reason for its existence.

Gothic architecture also offers many illustrations of this principle ; every tendency of lines to run in one direction is immediately counteracted by the angular or the curved : thus, the capping of the buttress is exactly what is required to counteract the upward tendency of the straight lines ; so the gable contrasts admirably with the curved windowhead and its perpendicular mullions.

If children were born and bred to the sound of hurdy-gurdies grinding out of tune, their ears would no doubt suffer deterioration, and they would lose their sensibility to the harmonious in sound.

This, then, is what is certainly taking place with regard to form, and it requires the most strenuous efforts to be made by all who would take an interest in the welfare of the rising generation to put a stop to it.

They appear i n t h i s t o w o r k b y a process analogous to t h a t o f nature, as we s e e i n t h e vine-leaf ; the object being to distribute the sap from the parent stem to the extremities, it is evident the main stem would divide the leaf as near as may be into equal areas.

So, again, of the minor divisions ; each area is again subdivided by intermediate lines, which all follow the same law of equal distribution, even to the most minute filling-in of the sap-feeders.

The Moors also follow another principle ; that of radiation from the parent stem, as we may see in n a t u r e w i t h t h e human hand, or in a chestnut leaf.

We m a y s e e i n the example how beautifully all these lines radiate from the parent stem ; how each leaf diminishes towards the extremities, and how each area is in proportion to the leaf.

The Orientals carry out this principle with marvellous perfection ; so also did the Greeks in their honeysuckle ornament.

We have already remarked, in Chapter I V. This is generally the case with Greek ornament ; the acanthus-leaf scrolls are a series of leaves growing out one from the other in a continuous line, whilst the Arabian and Moresque ornaments always grow out of a continuous stem.

All junctions of curved lines with curved, or of curved with straight, should be tangential to each other ; this also we consider t o b e a l a w found everywhere in n a t u r e , a n d t h e Oriental practice i s always in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h it.

Many o f t h e Moorish ornaments are on the same principle which is observable in the lines of a feather and in the articulations of every l e a f ; a n d t o t h i s i s d u e t h a t additional c h a r m f o u n d in a l l p e r f e c t ornamentation, which w e c a l l the graceful.

It m a y b e c a l l e d the melody of form, as what we have before described constitutes its harmony. We shall find these laws of equal distribution, r a d i a t i o n f r o m a p a re n t s t e m , continuity of line, and tangential curvature, ever present in natural leaves.

We would call attention to the nature of the exquisite curves in u s e by t h e A r a b s and Moors. The researches of Mr.

Penrose have shown that the mouldings and curved lines in t h e Parthenon are all portions of curves of a very high order, and that segments of circles were very rarely used.

The exquisite curves o f t h e Greek vases are well known, and here we never find portions of circles. In Roman architecture, on the contrary, this refinement is lost ; the Romans were probably as little able to describe as to appreciate curves o f a high o r d e r, a n d w e f i n d , therefore, their mouldings mostly parts of circles, which could be struck with compasses.

So we think that compositions distributed in equal lines or divisions will be less beautiful than those which require a higher mental effort to appreciate them.

T In the early works o f t h e Gothic period, the tracery would appear to have been much less the offspring of compass-wor k t h a n i n t h e later period, which has most appropriately been termed the Geometrical, from the immoderate use of compass-work.

There is a curve A common to Greek Art, t o t h e Gothic period, and so much delighted i n b y the Mohammeda n races.

This becomes graceful the more it departs from the curve which the union of two parts of circles would give. A still further charm i s f o u n d in the works of the Arabs and Moors from their conventional treatment of ornament, which, forbidden as they were by their creed to represent living forms, they carried to the highest perfection.

They ever worked as nature worked, but always avoided a direct transcript ; they took her principles, but did not, as we do, attempt to copy her works.

In this, again, they do not stand alone : in every period of faith in art, all ornamentatio n was ennobled by the ideal ; never was the sense of propriety violated by a too faithful representatio n of nature.

Thus, in Egypt, a lotus carved in stone was never such an one as you might have plucked, but a conventional representation perfectly in keeping with the architectural members of which it formed a part ; it was a symbol of the power of the king over countries where the lotus grew, and added poetry to what would otherwise have been a rude support.

The colossal statues of the Egyptian s were not little men carved on a large scale, but architectural representations of Majesty, in which were symbolised the power of the monarch , and his abiding love of his people.

I n G r e e k art, the ornament s, no longer symbols, a s i n Egypt, were still further conventio nalised ; and in their sculptur e applied to architecture, they adopted a conventio nal treatmen t both of pose and relief very different to that of their isolated works.

In the best periods of Gothic a r t t h e floral ornamen ts are treated conventio nally, a n d a direct imitation of n a t u r e i s never attempte d ; b u t a s a r t declined , they became less idealised , and more direct in imitation.

The same decline may be traced in stained glass, where both figures and ornamen ts were treated at first conventionally ; b u t a s t h e art declined, figures and draperies , through which light was to be transmitt ed, had their own shades and shadows.

In all a r c h a i c s t y l e s of art, practis ed during period s of faith, the s a m e t r u e princip les prevai l ; and althou gh we find in all somew hat of a local or tempo rary charac ter, we yet discer n in all much that is eterna l and immut able ; the same grand ideas embod ied in differe nt forms, and expres sed, so to speak, in a differe nt langua ge.

The ancient s always used colour to assist in the develo pment of form, always employ ed it as a further means of bringin g out the constru ctive feature s of a buildin g.

In Gothic architecture, also, colour was always employed to assist in developing the forms of the panel-work and tracery ; and this is effected to an extent of which it is difficult to form an idea, in the present colourless condition o f t h e buildings.

I n t h e slender shafts of their lofty edifices, the idea of elevation was still further increased by upward-running spiral lines of colour, which, while adding to the apparent height of the column, also helped to define its form.

In Oriental art, again, we always find the constructive lines of the building well defined by colour ; an apparent additional height, length, breadth, or bulk, always results from its judicious application ; and with the ornaments in relief it developes constantly new forms which would have been altogether lost without it.

The artists have i n t h i s b u t followed the guiding inspiration of Nature, in whose works every transition of form is accompanied by a modification of colour, so disposed as to assist in producing distinctness of expression.

For example, flowers are separated by colour from their leaves and stalks, and these again from the earth in which they grow.

We all know how much the absence or impairment of these colours, as in sickness, contributes to deprive the features of their proper meaning and expression.

Had nature applied but one colour to all objects, they would have been indistinct in form as well as monotonous in a s p e c t.

It i s t h e boundless variety of her tints that perfects the modelling and defines the outline of each ; detaching equally the modest lily from the grass from which it springs, and the glorious sun, parent of all colour, from the firmament in which it shines.

The colours employed by t h e M o o r s on their stucco-work were, in all cases, the primaries, blue, red, and yellow gold. The secondary colours, purple, green, and orange, occur only i n t h e Mosaic dados, which, being near the eye, formed a point of repose from the more brilliant colouring above.

It is t r u e t h a t , at the present day, the grounds of many of the ornaments are found to be green ; it will always be found, however, on a minute examination, that the colour originally employed was blue, which being a metallic pigment, has become green from the effects of time.

This is proved by the presence of the particles of blue colour, which occur everywhere in the crevices : in t h e restorations, also, which were made by the Catholic kings, the grounds of the ornaments were repainted both green and purple.

It may be remarked that, among the Egyptians and the Greeks, the Arabs and the Moors, the primary colours were almost entirely, if not exclusively, employed during the early periods of art ; whilst during the decadence, the secondary colours became of more importance.

Thus, in Egypt, in Pharaonic temples, we find the primary colours predominating ; in the Ptolemaic temples, the secondary : so also on the early Greek temples are found the primary colours, whilst at Pompeii every variety of shade and tone was employed.

In modern Cairo, and in the East generally, we have green constantly appearing side by side with red, where blue would have been used in earlier times.

This is equally true of the works of the Middle Ages. In the early manuscripts and in stained glass, though other colours were not excluded, the primaries were chiefly used ; whilst in later times we have every variety of shade and tint, but rarely used with equal success.

With t h e M o o r s , as a general rule, the primary colours were u s e d o n t h e upper portions T of objects, the secondary and tertiary on the lower.

This also appears to be in accordance with a natural law ; we have the primary blue in the sky, the secondary green in the trees and fields, ending with the tertiaries on the earth ; as also in flowers, where we generally find the primaries o n t h e buds and flowers, and the secondaries on the leaves and stalks.

The ancients always observed this rule in the best periods of art. In Egypt, however, we do see occasionally the secondary green used in the upper portions of the temples, but this arises from the fact, that ornaments in Egypt were symbolical ; and if a l o t u s l e a f were used on the upper part of a b u i l d i n g , i t would necessarily be coloured green ; b u t t h e l a w i s true i n t h e m a i n ; the general aspect of an Egyptian temple of the Pharaonic period gives the primaries above and the secondaries below ; b u t i n t h e buildings of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods more especially, this order was inverted, and the palm and lotus-leaf capitals give a superabundance of g r e e n i n t h e upper portions of the temples.

In Pompeii we find sometimes in the interior of the houses a gradual gradation of colour downwards from the roof, from light to dark, ending with black ; b u t t h i s i s b y no means so universal as to convince us that they f e l t i t a s a law.

We have already shown in Chapter V. Although the ornaments which a r e f o u n d i n the Alhambra, a n d i n t h e Court o f t h e L i o n s especially, are at the present day covered with several thin coats of the whitewash which has at various periods been applied to them, we m a y b e s a i d to h a v e a u t h o r i t y for the whole of the colouring of our reproduction ; for not only may the colours be seen in the interstices of the ornaments in many places by scaling off the whitewash, but the colouring of the Alhambra was carried out on so perfect a s y s t e m , t h a t a n y one w h o w i l l m a k e this a s t u d y c a n , with almost absolute certainty, on being shown for the first time a piece of Moorish ornament in white, define at once the manner in which it was coloured.

So completely were all the architectural forms designed with reference to their subsequent colouring, that the surface alone will indicate the colours they were destined to receive.

Thus, in using the colours blue, red, and gold, they took care to place them in such positions that they should be best seen in themselves, and add most to the general effect.

On moulded surfaces they placed red, the strongest colour of the three, in the depths, where it might be softened by shadow, never on the surface ; blue in the shade, and gold on all surfaces exposed to light : for it is evident that by this arrangement alone c o u l d t h e i r t r u e value b e o b t a i n e d.

In colouring the grounds of the various diapers the blue always occupies the largest area ; a n d t h i s i s in accordance with the theory of optics, and the experiments which have been made with the prismatic spectrum.

The rays of light are said to neutralise each o t h e r i n t h e proportions of 3 yellow, 5 r e d , a n d 8 b l u e ; thus, i t requires a quantity o f b l u e e q u a l to the r e d a n d yellow put together to produce a harmonious effect, and prevent the predominance of any one colour over t h e o t h e r s.

In t h e f i r s t series the l i n e s a r e equidistant, diagonally crossed by horizontal and Diagram No. Diagram No. But the system on which No.

The number of patterns that c a n b e produced by these two systems would appear to be infinite ; and it will be seen, on reference t o P l a t e X X X I X.

Any o n e o f t h e s e patterns which w e h a v e engraved might b e made t o c h a n g e its aspect, by bringing into prominence different chains or other general masses.

The general effect of Plate XLI. Composed of but three colours, they are more harmonious and effective than a n y others i n o u r collection, and p o s s e s s a peculiar charm which all the others fail to approach.

The various principles for which we have contended, the constructive idea whereby each leading line r e s t s u p o n a n o t h e r, t h e gradual transitions from curve to curve, the tangential curvatures of t h e lines, the flowing off of the ornaments f r o m a parent s t e m , the tracing of each flower to its branch and root, the division and subdivision of general lines, will readily be perceived in every ornament on the page.

We have lines running horizontally, perpendicularly, and diagonally, again contrasted by circles in opposite directions.

So that the most perfect repose is obtained, the tendency of the eye to run in any direction is immediately corrected by lines giving an opposite tendency, and wherever the eye strikes upon the p a t t e r n s i t is inclined t o d w e l l.

We have already suggested, in Chapter IV. The leading lines of the ornaments Nos. Pattern No. Their fondness for geometrical forms is evidenced by t h e g r e a t use they made of mosaics, in which their imagination had full play.

They all arise from the intersection of equidistant lines round fixed centres. Ornaments from Persian MSS. From a Persian MS. South Kensington Museum.

Although presenting considerable grandeur i n t h e m a i n features, the general outlines a r e m u c h less pure, a n d t h e r e would appear t o b e a great want of elegance in all the constructive features as compared with those of Cairo.

Their system of ornamentation also appears to us m u c h l e s s pure t h a n t h e Arabian and Moresque.

The Persians, u n l i k e t h e Arabs a n d t h e Moors, were free to introduce animal life, a n d t h i s mixing u p o f subjects d r a w n f r o m real l i f e i n their decoration led t o a much less pure style of ornament.

Wi t h the Arabs and Moors, ornaments with their inscriptions had to supply every want, and therefore it became of more importance in their structures, and reached a higher point of elaboration.

Persian ornament is a mixed style ; combining the conventional, which is similar to the Arabian, and probably derived f r o m a common origin, with an attempt at the natural, which sometimes has influenced both the Arabian a n d Tu r k i s h styles, and is even felt in portions of the Alhambra.

The decorations of the houses of Cairo and Damascus, the mosques and fountains of Constantinople more especially, exhibit this mixed style ; groups of natural flowers are constantly found growing from a vase and enclosed in panels of conventional Arabian ornament.

The ornament of modern India also feels this ever-present influence of the Persian mixed style. The geometrical patterns are purely conventional ornament, and have great affinity with the Arabian, but are less perfect in distribution.

The patterns on P l a t e X LV. Compared w i t h t h e Arabian a n d Moresque mosaics, they e x h i b i t a marked inferiority, both i n t h e distribution of form and in the arrangement of colour.

Compared with t h e Arabian MSS. Plate XXIV. However, the same general principles prevail. The designs exhibit much elegance, and there is great simplicity and ingenuity displayed in the conventional rendering of natural flowers.

When natural flowers are used as decoration, and subjected t o a geometrical arrangement, they can have neither shade nor shadow, as was the case with the later MSS.

Ornaments from Works in Metal, exhibited in the Indian Collection in T H E Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations in was barely opened to the public ere attention was directed to the gorgeous contributions of India.

United by a common faith, their art had necessarily a common expression, this expression varying in each according to the influence to which each nation was subject.

The Tunisian still retaining the art of the Moors who created the Alhambra ; the Turk exhibiting the same art, but modified by the character of the mixed population over which they rule ; the Indian uniting the severe forms of Arabian art with the graces of Persian refinement.

All the laws of the distribution of form which we have already observed in the Arabian and Moresque Ornament are equally to be found in the productions of India.

The same division and subdivision of their general lines, which forms the charms of Moresque ornament, is equally to be found here ; the difference which creates t h e s t y l e i s n o t one of principle, but of individual expression.

In the Indian style ornaments are somewhat more flowing and less conventionalised, and have, doubtless, been more subjected to direct Persian influence.

The ingenious way in which the full-blown flower is shown in N o. The intention of The u n i t y o f t h e surface of the object decorated is not destroyed, as it w o u l d b e b y t h e European method o f m a k i n g t h e flower as near l i k e a n a t u r a l flower as possible, with its own light and shade and shadow, tempting you to p l u c k i t f r o m t h e surface.

In the application of the various ornaments to the different portions of the objects the greatest judgment is always shown.

The ornament is invariably in perfect scale with the position it occupies ; on the narrow necks of t h e H o o k h a s a r e the small pendent flowers, the swelling forms of the base are occupied by the larger patterns ; at the lower edge, again, appear ornaments having an upward tendency, and, at the same time, forming a continuous line round the form to prevent the eye running o u t o f i t.

Whenever narrow flowing borders are u s e d , as in N o. In the equal distribution of the surface ornament over the grounds, the Indians exhibit an instinct Owen Jones.

The exact balance obtained by the gold embroidery on the green and r ed grounds was so perfect, that it was beyond the power o f a E u r o p e a n hand to copy it with the same complete balance of form and colour.

The way in which the colours are fused in all their woven fabrics, so as to obtain what they always appear to seek, viz.

A due regard to economy in the production of o u r P l a t e s h a s necessarily limited the number of printings, and we have not always, therefore, been able to obtain the proper balance of colour.

The Indian collection at South Kensington Museum should be visited and studied b y a l l i n any way connected w i t h t h e production of woven fabrics.

All the examples show the nicest adjustment of the massing of the ornament to the colour of the ground ; every colour or tint, from the palest and most delicate to the d e e p e s t a n d r i c h e s t s h a d e s , receiving j u s t t h e a m o u n t o f ornament t h a t i t is a d a p t e d to bear.

When gold ornaments are used on a coloured ground, where gold is used in large masses, there the ground is darkest.

Where the g o l d i s used more thinly, there t h e g r o u n d i s lighter and more delicate. When a gold ornament alone is used on a coloured ground, the colour o f t h e ground is carried into it by ornaments or hatchings worked in the ground-colours on the gold itself.

When ornaments in one colour are on a ground of c o n t r a s t i n g colour, the ornament is separated from the ground by an edging of a lighter colour, to prevent all harshness of contrast.

When, on the contrary, ornaments in a colour are on a gold ground, the ornaments are separated from the gold ground by an edging of a darker colour, to prevent the gold overpowering the ornament.

In other cases, where varieties of colour are used on a coloured ground, a general outline of gold, of silver, or of white or yellow silk, separates the ornament f r o m t h e ground, g i v i n g a general tone throughout.

The carpets and low-toned combinations of colour, a black general outline is used for this purpose.

The object always appears to be, in the woven fabrics especially, that each ornament should be softly, not harshly, defined ; that coloured objects viewed at a distance should p r e s e n t a neutralised bloom ; that each step nearer should exhibit fresh beauties ; and a close inspection, the means whereby these effects are produced.

The general proportions of the leading lines of the pattern, the skilful distribution of the flowers over the surface, and, notwithstanding the intricacy, the perfect continuity of the lines of the stalks, place i t f a r b e f o r e any European effort of this class.

Burmese, of Glass. Burmese Shrine. Burmese Standard. From Burmese Shrine. Ornament s fro m t h e C o p i es o f t h e Paintings on the walls of the Caves at Ajunta.

Burmese, from a Monastery near Prome. Burmese Gilt Chest. Hindoo Ornaments. W E have not been able, w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s a t comman d in this country, t o p r o c u r e sufficient illustrations for a fair apprecia tion of the nature of Hindoo ornamen t.

In the works hitherto publishe d on the ancient architect ure of India, sufficien t attention has not been directed to the ornamen tal portions of the building s to enable us t o recognis e the true characte r of Hindoo ornament.

In early publicati ons on t h e a r t o f E g y p t all the works of sculpture and ornamen t were so falsely rendered , that it h a s taken consider able time for the European public to become persuade d that there existed so much grace and refineme nt in the works of the Egyptians.

The Egyptian remains, however , which have been transport ed to this country, the casts of others existing in Egypt, a n d t h e m o r e trustwort hy represen tations which have of late been publishe d, have placed this beyond doubt, and Egyptian art is taking i ts true place in the estimatio n of the public.

Had we possessed only picturesq ue views of the Partheno n and the Temples of Balbeck and Palmyra, we should unhesita tingly have s a i d t h a t t h e Romans were far greater architect s t h a n t h e Greeks.

B u t t h e c o n t o u r o f a single mouldin g from the Partheno n would at once reverse the judgment , and proclaim loudly t h a t w e w e r e viewing the works of a people who had reached the highest point in civilisati on and refineme nt.

As these copies, notwithstanding that t h e y a r e said to be faithful, are y e t b y a European hand, it is difficult to say how far they may be relied upon.

In the subordinate portions, such as the ornaments, at all e v e n t s , t h e r e is so little m a r k e d character, that they might belong to any style.

It is very singular, that in these paintings there should be so little ornament ; a peculiarity that we have observed in several ancient paintings in the possession of the Asiatic Society.

There is a remarkable absence of ornament even on the dresses of the figures. Althoug h ornamen t is most properly an accessory to architect ure, a n d should never be allowed to usurp the place of proper structura l features, or to overload o r to disguise t h e m , i t i s in all cases the very s o u l o f a n architect ural monume nt ; a n d b y t h e o r n a m e n t a l o n e c a n w e judge truly of the amount of care and mind which has been devoted to the work.

All else in any building may be the result of rule and compass , but by the ornamen t of a b u i l d i n g w e c a n best discover how far the architect was at the same time an artist.

In t h i s w o r k n o t only are precise rules laid down for the general arrangem ent of structure s, but also minute direction s are given for the division s and subdivisions of each ornamen t.

In building an edifice, therefore , let all i t s p a r t s , from the basemen t to the roof, be duly considered. From which it is apparent t h a t t h e h i g h e r the c o l u m n t h e l e s s it will diminish ; and that this was done because the apparent diminuti on of the diameter in columns of the same proporti on is always greater accordin g to the height.

T h e b e s t specime ns of Hindoo ornamen t we have been able to procure are represent ed in Plate LVI.

The ornamen ts are very beautifu lly executed , and evidentl y betray Greek influenc e. The ornamen t No. I n t h e s a c r e d books quoted b y R a m Raz are several direction s to ornamen t the various architectural members with l o t u s e s a n d jewels ; which seem to b e t h e c h i e f types of the decorati on on the mouldin gs.

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Barnes, Aug 1, , Fiction, pages. A vivid, emotional story that will bedifficult to put down and more difficult to forget Psychology , , , Study Aids, pages.

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You'll see lots of headings, lists, charts This handbook discussesinfection control guidelines that directly relate to surgical environments.

Procedure guidelines areconcisely described and followed by rationales. Take your understanding of Cyrano deBergerac by Edmond Rostand to a whole new level, anywhere you go: on a plane, on a mountain,in a canoe, under a tree.

Dynamic programming has long been applied to numerous areas in mat- matics, science,engineering, business, medicine, information systems, b- mathematics, arti?

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