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Aserbaidschan (aserbaidschanisch Azərbaycan, amtlich Republik Aserbaidschan, Telefonvorwahl, + Azerbaijan on the globe (Europe centered).svg. Azerbaijan Airlines und Turkish Airlines führen ab Juli wieder regelmäßige Flüge zwischen Baku und Istanbul durch. Flugreisende. AHK Azerbaijan conducted a flash survey among its member companies to gauge the initial impact of COVID in the business environment. Liste. ​ |. Aserbaidschanische Sprache, früher offiziell auch Türkisch oder Aserbaidschan-Türkisch genannt und deshalb heute im Alltag oft noch inoffiziell so bezeichnet, ist der Name für die Amtssprache. Hohes Sicherheitsrisiko (Sicherheitsstufe 4) im Zusammenhang mit der Ausbreitung des Coronavirus (COVID). Sämtliche Grenzübergänge.

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Address: Winter Park Plaza, 7th floor 75 Rasul Rza Str. Baku Azerbaijan. Telephone: + Fax: + Azerbaijan Buyer's Mission vom bis Aserbaidschan entdecken. Türkei: Schienenverkehr mit Rekordzahlen im Jahr Aserbaidschanische Sprache, früher offiziell auch Türkisch oder Aserbaidschan-Türkisch genannt und deshalb heute im Alltag oft noch inoffiziell so bezeichnet, ist der Name für die Amtssprache.

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Efendi - Cleopatra - Azerbaijan 🇦🇿 - Official Music Video - Eurovision 2020 Azerbejdzan In Aserbaidschan leben heute noch In: www. Informieren Sie sich rechtzeitig! In: voanews. Die Gesamtzahl der Beschäftigten wird für auf 5,12 Millionen geschätzt. Abgerufen am Die aserbaidschanische Küche ähnelt der türkischen Küche. Es gelten 0,0 Promille! Die Ausfuhr von Antiquitäten und Kunstgegenständen ist nur mit einer Click the following article des Kulturministeriums erlaubt. Aserbaidschan liegt in einer more info aktiven Zone, sodass es zu Erdbeben kommen kann. September erklärte es sich für unabhängig.

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Geldstrafe geahndet werden. Aserbaidschan streitet sich seit langem mit Armenien um Bergkarabach. Reiseinschränkungen innerhalb Aserbaidschans sind seit In Klammern jeweils der Verwaltungssitz, sofern nicht identisch mit dem Rayonsnamen. Fehlende oder zerrissene Seiten im Pass führen zur Einreiseverweigerung. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Bei Durchfallerkrankungen handelt es sich um häufige Reiseerkrankungen, siehe Merkblatt Durchfallerkrankungen. This agreement entered into force in and marked the beginning of a mainly positive relationship between Baku and Brussels. November aserbaidschanisch, russisch, englisch. Dies in finden Stavenslust Spielothek Beste unter sowjetischer Verwaltung beibehalten und bei der erneuten Unabhängigkeit bestätigt. Deutsch-Aserbaidschanisches Wirtschaftsforum Zum Film.

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Azerbejdzan Bleiben Sie gesund und folgen Sie uns für weitere Updates. Europaspiele im Kumite gewonnen. In: EUobserver. This strategic importance may be a reason why the EU pays much less attention to the democratic situation in the country than with Belarus. Aserbaidschan ist seit geprägt vom autoritären Führungsstil der Präsidenten und durch Korruption unterminiert. Mehr als 89 Prozent der Go here sind schiitische Muslime. Die Gefahr, Opfer eines Anschlages zu werden, ist im Vergleich zu anderen Risiken, die Reisen ins Ausland mit sich bringen, wie Unfällen, Erkrankungen oder gewöhnlicher Kriminalität, nach wie vor vergleichsweise gering.
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Azerbejdzan Julidrei Tage nach just click for source Putschversuch in der Türkeigab die zuständige Rundfunk-Aufsichtsbehörde bekannt, dass sie die Tätigkeit des privaten Fernsehsenders Azerbaijani News Service ANS einstweilen für einen Monat unterbinden und den Opinion Spile Auto that seiner Sendelizenz beantragen werde, nachdem der Sender angekündigt hatte, ein Interview mit dem in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika im Exil lebenden Fethullah Gülen auszustrahlen. Tuberkulose ist eine bakterielle Infektionskrankheit, die am häufigsten die Lunge befällt. Das Schutzalter für sexuelle Handlungen kann gegenüber den in Österreich geltenden Bestimmungen um einige Jahre höher sein oder sogar über dem Erwachsenenalter von 18 Jahren liegen. Berufsbildung Wie funktioniert die duale Berufsbildung in Deutschland? Aserbaidschan Republik Aserbaidschan Stand Fehlende oder zerrissene Seiten im Pass führen zur Einreiseverweigerung.
Many translated example sentences containing "Azerbaijan" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Azerbaijan Buyer's Mission vom bis Aserbaidschan entdecken. Türkei: Schienenverkehr mit Rekordzahlen im Jahr Address: Winter Park Plaza, 7th floor 75 Rasul Rza Str. Baku Azerbaijan. Telephone: + Fax: + The list of jobs at Accor in Azerbaijan Jobs. Browse and apply for the jobs in Azerbaijan Location. Retrieved 27 August Most dances have a very in finden Kummersdorf Spielothek Beste rhythm. A report by an Amnesty International researcher in October points to ' Retrieved 28 September The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. The archeological dig on click territory of Azerbaijan testifies to the well-developed agriculture, stock raising, metalworking, pottery, ceramics, and carpet-weaving that date as far back as to the 2nd millennium BC. Main article: Azerbejdzan literature. After incorporation of all Caucasian territories from Iran into Russia, the new border between the two was set at the Aras Riverwhich, upon the Soviet Union's disintegration, subsequently became part of the border between Iran and the Azerbaijan Republic. History of the name Azerbaijan The Land of Fire. Sheki Visit Sheki, a small city off the forested slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains rich in Silk Road history and renowned for its fascinating architecture.

If you love nature you should visit Lankaran, region wedged between the Caspian Sea and the lush Talysh Mountains; a place with unique natural diversity.

Walk around this UNESCO-protected site surrounded by 12th-century walls and discover all the amazing things that this marvelous city within a city has for you.

Does it spark your curiosity? Uncover an astonishing collection of over 6, ancient petroglyphs charting ways of life dating back tens of thousands of years.

Learn how to cook the most delicious and traditional Guba sweets like pakhlava or bukma, from local chefs! Take a quick look and see how!

Discover a peaceful old city highlighted by a few colourful old cottages reminiscent of a time when Gusar was part of the Russian Empire.

Gabala has many shooting experiences set for you to enjoy. Visit the Gabala Shooting Club to improve your aim and enjoy its beautiful natural surroundings.

Step into Sheki's boutiques and admire their authentic craftsmanship. Meet artisans and buy some pots, papags, instruments and more.

There is no better way to feel freedom and wellness than by Baku has the perfect combination of international shops, fashion boutiques and traditional Shamkir has interesting events or locations you should experience while in Azerbaijan Choose from a wide range of places to stay and tours to enjoy for the ultimate Azerbaijan travel experience.

Here in Azerbaijan you can count on the help of our generous people in every step of your journey. Find out if you need a visa to enter Azerbaijan and learn how to apply to get your e-visa.

It is easy and fast. English and Russian are widely understood and spoken in the capital, Baku, but as you travel across the country knowing a few words of Azerbaijani will definitely enrich your experiences.

We use cookies to improve your user experience. By using our website, you will be providing your consent to our use of cookies.

To find out more, click here. More Baku. Guba Discover Guba, a great place to experience the Caucasus Mountains and its timeless villages full of history.

More Guba, Northern. Sheki Visit Sheki, a small city off the forested slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains rich in Silk Road history and renowned for its fascinating architecture.

More Sheki, North-western. Nakhchivan Nakhchivan, an autonomous Azerbaijani republic, is a region of breathtaking landscapes, quaint villages and a cuisine distinct from the rest of Azerbaijan.

More Nakhchivan. More Khizi, Northern. More Gusar, Northern. Shamakhi Visit Shamakhi. More Shamakhi, North-western.

Ismayilli Ismayilli is a region with lush mountains, forests, temples and villages where you can admire age-old crafts and enjoy culture and cuisine.

More Ismayilli, North-western. More Gabala, North-western. More Gakh, North-western. More Zagatala, North-western. More Ganja, Western.

Goygol Discover one of the most picturesque regions in the country. More Goygol, Western. During the Parliamentary election , the opposition parties, Musavat and Azerbaijani Popular Front Party , failed to win a single seat.

European observers found numerous irregularities in the run-up to the election and on election day. The executive power is held by the President , who is elected for a seven-year term by direct elections, and the Prime Minister.

The president is authorized to form the Cabinet, a collective executive body, accountable to both the President and the National Assembly.

The president does not have the right to dissolve the National Assembly but has the right to veto its decisions. To override the presidential veto, the parliament must have a majority of 95 votes.

The president nominates the judges in these courts. The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice CEPEJ report refers to the Azerbaijani justice model on the selection of new judges as best practice, reflecting the particular features and the course of development towards ensuring the independence and quality of the judiciary in a new democracy.

Azerbaijan's system of governance nominally can be called two-tiered. The top or highest tier of the government is the Executive Power headed by President.

The President appoints the Cabinet of Ministers and other high-ranking officials. In June , the President approved the new Regulation, which granted additional powers to Local Executive Authorities, strengthening their dominant position in Azerbaijan's local affairs [] Chapter 9 of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic addresses major issues of local self-government, such as the legal status of municipalities, types of local self-government bodies, their basic powers and relationships to other official entities.

Currently, there are 1, municipalities across the country. The Law on Municipal Elections and the Law on the Status of Municipalities were the first to be adopted in the field of local government 2 July The Law on Municipal Service regulates the activities of municipal employees, their rights, duties, labor conditions and social benefits, and outlines the structure of the executive apparatus and the organization of municipal service.

The Law on the Status of Municipalities regulates the role and structure of municipal bodies and outlines state guarantees of legal and financial autonomy.

The law pays special attention to the adoption and execution of municipal programs concerning social protection, social and economic development, and the local environment.

The Security Council is the deliberative body under the president, and he organizes it according to the Constitution.

It was established on 10 April The administrative department is not a part of the president's office but manages the financial, technical and pecuniary activities of both the president and his office.

Although Azerbaijan has held several elections since regaining its independence and it has many of the formal institutions of democracy, it remains classified as "not free" on border with "partly free" by Freedom House.

Azerbaijan has been harshly criticized for bribing foreign officials and diplomats in order to promote its causes abroad and legitimize its elections at home, a practice which has been termed as Caviar diplomacy.

The short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic succeeded in establishing diplomatic relations with six countries, sending diplomatic representatives to Germany and Finland.

The most recent country to recognize Azerbaijan was Bahrain, on 6 November Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with countries so far and holds membership in 38 international organizations.

The term of office began on 19 June Foreign policy priorities of Azerbaijan include, first of all, the restoration of its territorial integrity; elimination of the consequences of occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven other regions of Azerbaijan surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh; [] [] integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structure; contribution to international security; cooperation with international organizations; regional cooperation and bilateral relations; strengthening of defense capability; promotion of security by domestic policy means; strengthening of democracy; preservation of ethnic and religious tolerance; scientific, educational, and cultural policy and preservation of moral values; economic and social development; enhancing internal and border security; and migration, energy, and transportation security policy.

Azerbaijan is an active member of international coalitions fighting international terrorism. Azerbaijan was one of the first countries to offer support after the September 11 attacks.

It also maintains good relations with the European Union and could potentially one day apply for membership. The history of the modern Azerbaijan army dates back to Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in , when the National Army of the newly formed Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created on 26 June There are also 17, paramilitary troops.

Additionally the armed forces embrace several military sub-groups that can be involved in state defense when needed.

It operates as a semi-independent entity of the Special State Protection Service, an agency subordinate to the President.

Azerbaijan adheres to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and has signed all major international arms and weapons treaties.

Azerbaijan has deployed of its Peacekeeping Forces in Iraq and another in Afghanistan. Azerbaijani defense industry manufactures small arms, artillery systems, tanks, armors and noctovision devices , aviation bombs, pilotless vehicles, various military vehicles and military planes and helicopters.

The Central Bank serves as Azerbaijan's central bank, empowered to issue the national currency, the Azerbaijani manat , and to supervise all commercial banks.

Jahangir Hajiyev. Pushed up by spending and demand growth, the Q1 inflation rate reached In the early s the chronically high inflation was brought under control.

This led to the launch of a new currency, the new Azerbaijani manat, on 1 January , to cement the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.

Azerbaijan started operating a one-stop shop in January that halved the time, cost and number of procedures to start a business.

Also, taxpayers can now file forms and pay their taxes online. Azerbaijan's extensive reforms moved it far up the ranks, from 97 to 33 in the overall ease of doing business.

According to World Bank 's Doing Business report , Azerbaijan improved its position in the Ease of doing business rank from 57 to Two-thirds of Azerbaijan is rich in oil and natural gas.

The history of the oil industry of Azerbaijan dates back to the ancient period. Arabian historian and traveler Ahmed Al-Belaruri discussed the economy of the Absheron peninsula in antiquity, mentioning its oil in particular.

The region of the Lesser Caucasus accounts for most of the country's gold, silver, iron, copper, titanium , chromium , manganese , cobalt , molybdenum , complex ore and antimony.

Access to biocapacity in Azerbaijan is less than world average. In , Azerbaijan had 0. This means they use more biocapacity than Azerbaijan contains.

As a result, Azerbaijan is running a biocapacity deficit. Baku—Tbilisi—Kars railway line will connect the Caspian region with Turkey, is expected to be completed in July Azerbaijan has the largest agricultural basin in the region.

About Livestock, dairy products, and wine and spirits are also important farm products. The Caspian fishing industry concentrates on the dwindling stocks of sturgeon and beluga.

In the Azerbaijani merchant marine had 54 ships. Some products previously imported from abroad have begun to be produced locally. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan.

The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. However, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the s, damaged the tourist industry and the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination.

It was not until the s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays.

The government of Azerbaijan has set the development of Azerbaijan as an elite tourist destination as a top priority.

It is a national strategy to make tourism a major, if not the single largest, contributor to the Azerbaijani economy.

There are 63 countries which have visa-free score. According to a report by the World Travel and Tourism Council, Azerbaijan was among the top ten countries showing the strongest growth in visitor exports between and , [] In addition, Azerbaijan placed first The convenient location of Azerbaijan on the crossroad of major international traffic arteries, such as the Silk Road and the south—north corridor, highlights the strategic importance of transportation sector for the country's economy.

Azerbaijan is also an important economic hub in the transportation of raw materials. In , the Azerbaijani government established the Ministry of Transport with a broad range of policy and regulatory functions.

In the same year, the country became a member of the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The construction of Kars—Tbilisi—Baku railway was meant to improve transportation between Asia and Europe by connecting the railways of China and Kazakhstan in the east to the European railway system in the west via Turkey.

By , there were 35 airports and one heliport. In the 21st century, a new oil and gas boom helped to improve the situation in Azerbaijan's science and technology sectors, and the government launched a campaign aimed at modernization and innovation.

The government estimates that profits from the information technology and communication industry will grow and become comparable to those from oil production.

Azerbaijan has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the financial crisis of — ; rapid growth is forecast for at least five more years.

The country has also been making progress in developing its telecoms sector. Public payphones are available for local calls and require the purchase of a token from the telephone exchange or some shops and kiosks.

Tokens allow a call of indefinite duration. As of [update] , there were 1,, main telephone lines [] and 1,, internet users.

In the 21st century a number of prominent Azerbaijani geodynamics and geotectonics scientists, inspired by the fundamental works of Elchin Khalilov and others, designed hundreds of earthquake prediction stations and earthquake-resistant buildings that now constitute the bulk of The Republican Center of Seismic Service.

The sex ratio in the same year was 0. The population growth-rate was 0. The Azerbaijani diaspora is found in 42 countries [] and in turn there are many centers for ethnic minorities inside Azerbaijan, including the German cultural society "Karelhaus", Slavic cultural center, Azerbaijani-Israeli community, Kurdish cultural center, International Talysh Association, Lezgin national center "Samur", Azerbaijani- Tatar community, Crimean Tatars society, etc.

The ethnic composition of the population according to the population census: In total, Azerbaijan has 78 cities, 63 city districts, and one special legal status city.

These are followed by urban-type settlements and villages. The official language is Azerbaijani , which is a Turkic language.

Some of these language communities are very small and their numbers are decreasing. Under article 48 of its Constitution , Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Of the nation's religious minorities, the estimated , Christians 3. State Department report on the matter mentions detention of members of certain Muslim and Christian groups, and many groups have difficulty registering with the SCWRA.

A relatively high percentage of Azerbaijanis have obtained some form of higher education, most notably in scientific and technical subjects.

According to Soviet data, percent of males and females ages nine to forty-nine were literate in Since independence, one of the first laws that Azerbaijan's Parliament passed to disassociate itself from the Soviet Union was to adopt a modified-Latin alphabet to replace Cyrillic.

Initial alterations have included the reestablishment of religious education banned during the Soviet period and curriculum changes that have reemphasized the use of the Azerbaijani language and have eliminated ideological content.

In addition to elementary schools, the education institutions include thousands of preschools, general secondary schools, and vocational schools , including specialized secondary schools and technical schools.

Education through the eighth grade is compulsory. The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, national traditions are well preserved in the country despite Western influences, including globalized consumer culture.

Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram.

The latter is derived from the traditional celebration of the New Year in the ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism.

Novruz is a family holiday. The profile of Azerbaijan's population consists, as stated above, of Azerbaijanis, as well as other nationalities or ethnic groups, compactly living in various areas of the country.

Azerbaijani national and traditional dresses are the Chokha and Papakhi. There are radio broadcasts in Russian, Georgian , Kurdish , Lezgian and Talysh languages, which are financed from the state budget.

Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly a thousand years. Mugham , meykhana and ashiq art are among the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan.

Mugham is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes. When performing mugham, the singers have to transform their emotions into singing and music.

In contrast to the mugham traditions of Central Asian countries, Azerbaijani mugham is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz.

Meykhana is a kind of traditional Azerbaijani distinctive folk unaccompanied song, usually performed by several people improvising on a particular subject.

Ashiq combines poetry, storytelling, dance, and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art that stands as a symbol of Azerbaijani culture.

It is a mystic troubadour or traveling bard who sings and plays the saz. This tradition has its origin in the Shamanistic beliefs of ancient Turkic peoples.

Since the mids, Western-influenced Azerbaijani pop music , in its various forms, that has been growing in popularity in Azerbaijan, while genres such as rock and hip hop are widely produced and enjoyed.

Azerbaijan made its debut appearance at the Eurovision Song Contest. The country's entry gained third place in and fifth the following year.

There are dozens of Azerbaijani folk dances. They are performed at formal celebrations and the dancers wear national clothes like the Chokha , which is well-preserved within the national dances.

Most dances have a very fast rhythm. The national dance shows the characteristics of the Azerbaijani nation.

The earliest known figure in Azerbaijani literature was Izzeddin Hasanoglu , who composed a divan consisting of Persian and Turkic ghazals.

Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in the 14th century based on the various Early Middle Ages dialects of Tabriz and Shirvan.

The Book of Dede Korkut consists of two manuscripts copied in the 16th century, [] was not written earlier than the 15th century.

Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society.

Modern literature in Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iran it is based on the Tabrizi one.

The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Akinchi was published in In the midth century, it was taught in the schools of Baku , Ganja , Shaki , Tbilisi , and Yerevan.

Since , it has also been taught in the University of Saint Petersburg in Russia. Azerbaijanis have a rich and distinctive culture, a major part of which is decorative and applied art.

This form of art is represented by a wide range of handicrafts, such as chasing, jeweler, engraving in metal, carving in wood, stone, and bone, carpet-making, lasing, pattern weaving and printing, knitting and embroidery.

Each of these types of decorative art, evidence of the endowments of the Azerbaijan nation, is very much in favor here.

Many interesting facts pertaining to the development of arts and crafts in Azerbaijan were reported by numerous merchants, travelers, and diplomats who had visited these places at different times.

The Azerbaijani carpet is a traditional handmade textile of various sizes, with a dense texture and a pile or pile-less surface, whose patterns are characteristic of Azerbaijan's many carpet-making regions.

Azerbaijan has been since ancient times known as a center of a large variety of crafts. The archeological dig on the territory of Azerbaijan testifies to the well-developed agriculture, stock raising, metalworking, pottery, ceramics, and carpet-weaving that date as far back as to the 2nd millennium BC.

Azerbaijani carpets can be categorized under several large groups and a multitude of subgroups. Scientific research of the Azerbaijani carpet is connected with the name of Latif Kerimov , a prominent scientist and artist.

It was his classification that related the four large groups of carpets with the four geographical zones of Azerbaijan, Guba-Shirvan, Ganja-Kazakh, Karabakh and Tabriz.

The traditional cuisine is famous for an abundance of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro coriander , dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table.

Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea , local meat mainly mutton and beef , and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens.

Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage. Azerbaijani architecture typically combines elements of East and West.

Among other architectural treasures are Quadrangular Castle in Mardakan , Parigala in Yukhary Chardaglar , a number of bridges spanning the Aras River, and several mausoleums.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, little monumental architecture was created, but distinctive residences were built in Baku and elsewhere.

Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor. The task for modern Azerbaijani architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment.

Azerbaijani art includes one of the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered as Gamigaya Petroglyphs in the territory of Ordubad Rayon are dated back to the 1st to 4th centuries BC.

About dislodged and carved rock paintings with images of deer, goats, bulls, dogs, snakes, birds, fantastic beings and also people, carriages and various symbols had been found out on basalt rocks.

Over the centuries, Azerbaijani art has gone through many stylistic changes. Azerbaijani painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Azim Azimzade and Bahruz Kangarli , and a preoccupation with religious figures and cultural motifs.

The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in cinematography. Just like today, the oil industry attracted foreigners eager to invest and to work.

This also influenced the creation of Azerbaijani animation. In December , the former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, signed a decree proclaiming 2 August to be the professional holiday of filmmakers of Azerbaijan.

Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Once again, both choices of content and sponsorship of films are largely left up to the initiative of the filmmaker.

The Constitution of Azerbaijan claims to guarantee freedom of speech, but this is denied in practice. After several years of decline in press and media freedom, in , the media environment in Azerbaijan deteriorated rapidly under a governmental campaign to silence any opposition and criticism, even while the country led the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe May—November Spurious legal charges and impunity in violence against journalists have remained the norm.

According to the Freedom House Freedom of the Press report , Azerbaijan's press freedom status is "not free," and Azerbaijan ranks th out of countries.

Christianity is officially recognized, but in practice it is often oppressed. All religious communities are required to register to be allowed to meet, under the risk of imprisonment.

This registration is often denied. During the last few years, [ when? Azerbaijan had the biggest number of journalists imprisoned in Europe and Central Asia in , according to the Committee to Protect Journalists , and is the 5th most censored country in the world, ahead of Iran and China.

A report by an Amnesty International researcher in October points to ' Sadly Azerbaijan has been allowed to get away with unprecedented levels of repression and in the process almost wipe out its civil society'.

Human rights organizations remained unable to resume their work. At least 18 prisoners of conscience remained in detention at the end of the year.

Reprisals against independent journalists and activists persisted both in the country and abroad, while their family members also faced harassment and arrests.

International human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Reports of torture and other ill-treatment persisted.

Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16, covert payments from to Some of this money went to politicians and journalists, as part of an international lobbying operation to deflect criticism of Azerbaijan's president, Ilham Aliyev, and to promote a positive image of his oil-rich country.

Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Azerbaijan's national sport , in which Azerbaijan won up to fourteen medals , including four golds since joining the International Olympic Committee.

Currently, the most popular sports include football and wrestling. Football is the most popular sport in Azerbaijan, and the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan with 9, registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.

Azerbaijan is one of the traditional powerhouses of world chess, [] having hosted many international chess tournaments and competitions and became European Team Chess Championship winners in , and As of [update] , country's home of Shamkir Chess a category 22 event and one of the highest rated tournaments of all time.

Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League is one of strongest women leagues in world. Its women's national team came fourth at the European Championship.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the independent country in the Caucasus.

For other uses, see Azerbaijan disambiguation. Country in the Caucasus. National emblem. Location of Azerbaijan green with Nagorno-Karabakh [a] light green.

Further information: Atropatene , Caucasian Albania , and Azerbaijan toponym. Main article: History of Azerbaijan. Further information: Caucasian Albania.

See also: Extreme points of Azerbaijan. Main article: Wildlife of Azerbaijan. Further information: Fauna of Azerbaijan and Flora of Azerbaijan.

Main article: Politics of Azerbaijan. See also: Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan. Main article: Foreign relations of Azerbaijan.

See also: Azerbaijan and the European Union. Main article: Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan.

Largest cities or towns in Azerbaijan Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions , Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee.

Main article: Azerbaijani Armed Forces. Main article: Economy of Azerbaijan. Main article: Energy in Azerbaijan.

Further information: Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan. Main article: Agriculture in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Tourism in Azerbaijan. Main articles: Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan. Main article: Demographics of Azerbaijan.

Further information: Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan. Main article: List of cities in Azerbaijan. Main article: Languages of Azerbaijan.

Main articles: Religion in Azerbaijan and Freedom of religion in Azerbaijan. Main article: Education in Azerbaijan. Main articles: Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan.

Main articles: Music of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani dances. Main article: Azerbaijani literature.

Main article: Azerbaijani folk art. Main article: Azerbaijani cuisine. Main article: Architecture of Azerbaijan.

Main article: Visual arts of Azerbaijan. Main articles: Media of Azerbaijan and Media freedom in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Human rights in Azerbaijan. Main article: Sport in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan portal Europe portal Asia portal.

The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February In Elgie, Robert ; Moestrup, Sophia eds.

Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan published 15 May LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan's regime is a curious hybrid, in which semi-presidential institutions operate in the larger context of authoritarianism.

The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency.

In addition to the considerable formal powers laid out in the Constitution, Azerbaijan's president also benefits from the support of the ruling party and informal family and patronage networks.

LaPorte concludes by discussing the theoretical implications of this symbiosis between formal and informal institutions in Azerbaijan's semi-presidential regime.

Retrieved 9 February International Monetary Fund. April Retrieved 16 August World Bank. Retrieved 5 March United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition.

Columbia University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Marshall Cavendish. United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 26 May Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The Jakarta Post. Azerbaijan Since Independence. Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 24 July Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 March First Encyclopaedia of Islam — reprint ed.

Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History. Greenwood Publishing Group. Hellenistic Civilization. John Wiley and Sons.

Alexander the Great in Fact and fiction. Oxford University Press. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan.

Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. Kessinger Publishing. Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 June Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran.

Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H. Until , when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.

Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: academisch proefschrift.

Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to , unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.

Tauris and Company. In the post Islamic sense, Arran and Shirvan are often distinguished, while in the pre-Islamic era, Arran or the western Caucasian Albania roughly corresponds to the modern territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In the Soviet era, in a breathtaking manipulation, historical Azerbaijan northwestern Iran was reinterpreted as "South Azerbaijan" in order for the Soviets to lay territorial claim on historical Azerbaijan proper which is located in modern-day northwestern Iran.

Gibb Memorial Trust. The languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.

Institute of Physics. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 27 May Dizadji, M.

C USA: Trafford Publishing. Zondervan Academic. Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. Hewsen, Robert H.

Thomas J. Samuelian, ed. Classical Armenian Culture: Influences and Creativity. Philadelphia: Scholars Press. Scholars Press. Armenia: a Historical Atlas.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stone, eds. Medieval Armenian Culture. Cambridge: Wiesbaden: Reichert. The new Central Asia: geopolitics and the birth of nations reprint ed.

Ward, Steven Immortal: a military history of Iran and its armed forces. Georgetown University Press. The evolution of middle eastern landscapes: an outline to A.

Altstadt, Audrey The Azerbaijani Turks: power and identity under Russian rule. Hoover Press. The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security.

Armenia, the survival of a nation. Croom Helm. Tsitsianov next moved against the semi-independent Iranian khanates. On the thinnest of pretexts, he captured the Muslim town of Gandja, the seat of Islamic learning in the Caucasus Even though these principalities [the khanates] had not been under Iranian suzerainty since the assassination of Nadir Shah in , they were traditionally considered an inalienable part of Iranian domains.

To the semi-independent Caucasian principalities the appearance of the new Great Power International Journal of Middle East Studies.

Duke University Press. But they were relatively more accessible given the organization of small, centralized, semi-independent khanates that functioned through the decline of Iranian rule after the death of Nadir Shah in the mid-eighteenth century The Cambridge History of Iran.

Cambridge University Press. Agha Muhammad Khan could now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom.

This region comprised a number of khanates of which the most important was Qarabagh , with its capital at Shusha; Ganja, with its capital of the same name; Shirvan across the Kura, with its capital at Shamakhi; and to the north-west, on both banks of the Kura, Christian Georgia Gurjistan , with its capital at Tiflis.

The ghost of freedom: a history of the Caucasus. University of Michigan. The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the eighteenth century to modern times.

Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 3 September January Russo-Persian War. Russian invasion of Persia.

Batalden, Sandra Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism reprint ed.

The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Basic Books. Iranian-Russian Encounters: Empires and Revolutions since Perhaps the most important legacy of Yermolov was his intention from early on to prepare the ground for the conquest of the remaining khanates under Iranian rule and to make the River Aras the new border.

Another provocative action by Yermolov was the Russian occupation of the northern shore of Lake Gokcha Sivan in the Khanate of Iravan in A clear violation of Golestan, this action was the most significant provocation by the Russian side.

The Lake Gokcha occupation clearly showed that it was Russia and not Iran which initiated hostilities and breached Golestan and that Iran was left with no choice but to come up with a proper response.

Journal of Contemporary History. The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. National Memory". Sakharov Center.

Retrieved 21 August The Struggle for Transcaucasia: — The New York Philosophical Library. A Modern History of the Islamic World.

Tauris, Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 28 August Sons of the conquerors: the rise of the Turkic world.

New York: The Overlook Press. Retrieved 9 May

Azerbaijan Press Agency. Visit the Gabala Shooting Club to improve your aim and enjoy its beautiful natural surroundings. History of the name Azerbaijan The Land of Fire. Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those https://levelexchange.co/casino-online/beste-spielothek-in-mittellinach-finden.php by cinematographers prior go here the establishment of Ohne Spiele Internet Spielen Soviet Union in Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions. Samuelian, ed. In terms of water supply, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximatelycubic metres 3, cubic feet per year of water per square kilometer. The Book of Dede Korkut consists of two manuscripts copied in the 16th century, [] was not written earlier than the 15th century. Azerbejdzan

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To find out more, click here. More Baku. Guba Discover Guba, a great place to experience the Caucasus Mountains and its timeless villages full of history.

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The resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay , forced Qajar Iran to cede sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Lankaran Khanate , [72] comprising the last parts of the soil of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that were still in Iranian hands.

After incorporation of all Caucasian territories from Iran into Russia, the new border between the two was set at the Aras River , which, upon the Soviet Union's disintegration, subsequently became part of the border between Iran and the Azerbaijan Republic.

Qajar Iran was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia in the 19th century, which thus included the territory of the modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, while as a result of that cession, the Azerbaijani ethnic group is nowadays parted between two nations: Iran and Azerbaijan.

It was followed by the March Days massacres [81] [82] that took place between 30 March and 2 April in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.

By March , it was obvious that Soviet Russia would attack Baku. Vladimir Lenin said that the invasion was justified as Soviet Russia could not survive without Baku's oil.

Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh , Azerbaijanis did not surrender their brief independence of —20 quickly or easily.

As many as 20, Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest.

On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zangezur and Turkey agreed to return Gyumri then known as Alexandropol.

By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in February , the commitment of more than workers and employees of the oil industry of Azerbaijan were awarded orders and medals.

Approximately , people with over , of them women went to the front, while the total population of Azerbaijan was 3.

More than Azerbaijanis were named Heroes of the Soviet Union. Following the politics of glasnost , initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev , civil unrest and ethnic strife grew in various regions of the Soviet Union, including Nagorno-Karabakh , [91] an autonomous region of the Azerbaijan SSR.

The disturbances in Azerbaijan, in response to Moscow's indifference to an already heated conflict, resulted in calls for independence and secession, which culminated in the Black January events in Baku.

The early years of independence were overshadowed by the Nagorno-Karabakh war with the ethnic Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by Armenia.

In , democratically elected president Abulfaz Elchibey was overthrown by a military insurrection led by Colonel Surat Huseynov , which resulted in the rise to power of the former leader of Soviet Azerbaijan , Heydar Aliyev.

The coup was averted, resulting in the killing of the latter and disbanding of Azerbaijan's OMON units.

Despite the much improved economy, particularly with the exploitation of the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field and Shah Deniz gas field , Aliyev's presidency was criticized due to suspected election frauds, high levels of economic inequality and domestic corruption.

He was reelected to a third term as president in October Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country's center.

Nearly half of all the mud volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in Azerbaijan, these volcanoes were also among nominees for the New7Wonders of Nature.

The main water sources are surface waters. Azerbaijan's four main islands in the Caspian Sea have a combined area of over thirty square kilometers.

Since the independence of Azerbaijan in , the Azerbaijani government has taken measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan.

National protection of the environment accelerated after when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.

Within four years protected areas doubled and now makeup eight percent of the country's territory. Since the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection.

Azerbaijan is home to a vast variety of landscapes. The rest of Azerbaijan's terrain consists of plains and lowlands.

The formation of climate in Azerbaijan is influenced particularly by cold arctic air masses of Scandinavian anticyclone , temperate air masses of Siberian anticyclone, and Central Asian anticyclone.

That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.

Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan, they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period.

This is particularly evidenced by remnants of ancient rivers found throughout the country. The country's water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities.

Artificial rivers canals and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan's water systems. In terms of water supply, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately , cubic metres 3,, cubic feet per year of water per square kilometer.

The hydrography of Azerbaijan basically belongs to the Caspian Sea basin. The rivers that directly flow into the Caspian Sea, originate mainly from the north-eastern slope of the Major Caucasus and Talysh Mountains and run along the Samur—Devechi and Lankaran lowlands.

Yanar Dag , translated as "burning mountain", is a natural gas fire which blazes continuously on a hillside on the Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea near Baku , which itself is known as the "land of fire.

It is a tourist attraction to visitors to the Baku area. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers.

Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks, and stones survived up to the present times.

The first information on the flora and fauna of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in the 17th century.

There are species of mammals, 97 species of fish, species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan.

The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world.

However, today the horse is an endangered species. Azerbaijan's flora consists of more than 4, species of higher plants.

Due to the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the flora is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus.

The structural formation of Azerbaijan's political system was completed by the adoption of the new Constitution on 12 November According to Article 23 of the Constitution, the state symbols of the Azerbaijan Republic are the flag , the coat of arms , and the national anthem.

The state power in Azerbaijan is limited only by law for internal issues, but for international affairs is additionally limited by the provisions of international agreements.

The Constitution of Azerbaijan states that it is a presidential republic with three branches of power — Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.

The Parliament of Azerbaijan, called Milli Majlis, consists of deputies elected based on majority vote , with a term of 5 years for each elected member.

The elections are held every five years, on the first Sunday of November. The Parliament is not responsible for the formation of the government, but the Constitution requires the approval of the Cabinet of Ministers by Milli Majlis.

During the Parliamentary election , the opposition parties, Musavat and Azerbaijani Popular Front Party , failed to win a single seat.

European observers found numerous irregularities in the run-up to the election and on election day. The executive power is held by the President , who is elected for a seven-year term by direct elections, and the Prime Minister.

The president is authorized to form the Cabinet, a collective executive body, accountable to both the President and the National Assembly.

The president does not have the right to dissolve the National Assembly but has the right to veto its decisions.

To override the presidential veto, the parliament must have a majority of 95 votes. The president nominates the judges in these courts.

The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice CEPEJ report refers to the Azerbaijani justice model on the selection of new judges as best practice, reflecting the particular features and the course of development towards ensuring the independence and quality of the judiciary in a new democracy.

Azerbaijan's system of governance nominally can be called two-tiered. The top or highest tier of the government is the Executive Power headed by President.

The President appoints the Cabinet of Ministers and other high-ranking officials. In June , the President approved the new Regulation, which granted additional powers to Local Executive Authorities, strengthening their dominant position in Azerbaijan's local affairs [] Chapter 9 of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic addresses major issues of local self-government, such as the legal status of municipalities, types of local self-government bodies, their basic powers and relationships to other official entities.

Currently, there are 1, municipalities across the country. The Law on Municipal Elections and the Law on the Status of Municipalities were the first to be adopted in the field of local government 2 July The Law on Municipal Service regulates the activities of municipal employees, their rights, duties, labor conditions and social benefits, and outlines the structure of the executive apparatus and the organization of municipal service.

The Law on the Status of Municipalities regulates the role and structure of municipal bodies and outlines state guarantees of legal and financial autonomy.

The law pays special attention to the adoption and execution of municipal programs concerning social protection, social and economic development, and the local environment.

The Security Council is the deliberative body under the president, and he organizes it according to the Constitution.

It was established on 10 April The administrative department is not a part of the president's office but manages the financial, technical and pecuniary activities of both the president and his office.

Although Azerbaijan has held several elections since regaining its independence and it has many of the formal institutions of democracy, it remains classified as "not free" on border with "partly free" by Freedom House.

Azerbaijan has been harshly criticized for bribing foreign officials and diplomats in order to promote its causes abroad and legitimize its elections at home, a practice which has been termed as Caviar diplomacy.

The short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic succeeded in establishing diplomatic relations with six countries, sending diplomatic representatives to Germany and Finland.

The most recent country to recognize Azerbaijan was Bahrain, on 6 November Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with countries so far and holds membership in 38 international organizations.

The term of office began on 19 June Foreign policy priorities of Azerbaijan include, first of all, the restoration of its territorial integrity; elimination of the consequences of occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven other regions of Azerbaijan surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh; [] [] integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structure; contribution to international security; cooperation with international organizations; regional cooperation and bilateral relations; strengthening of defense capability; promotion of security by domestic policy means; strengthening of democracy; preservation of ethnic and religious tolerance; scientific, educational, and cultural policy and preservation of moral values; economic and social development; enhancing internal and border security; and migration, energy, and transportation security policy.

Azerbaijan is an active member of international coalitions fighting international terrorism. Azerbaijan was one of the first countries to offer support after the September 11 attacks.

It also maintains good relations with the European Union and could potentially one day apply for membership. The history of the modern Azerbaijan army dates back to Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in , when the National Army of the newly formed Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created on 26 June There are also 17, paramilitary troops.

Additionally the armed forces embrace several military sub-groups that can be involved in state defense when needed.

It operates as a semi-independent entity of the Special State Protection Service, an agency subordinate to the President.

Azerbaijan adheres to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and has signed all major international arms and weapons treaties.

Azerbaijan has deployed of its Peacekeeping Forces in Iraq and another in Afghanistan. Azerbaijani defense industry manufactures small arms, artillery systems, tanks, armors and noctovision devices , aviation bombs, pilotless vehicles, various military vehicles and military planes and helicopters.

The Central Bank serves as Azerbaijan's central bank, empowered to issue the national currency, the Azerbaijani manat , and to supervise all commercial banks.

Jahangir Hajiyev. Pushed up by spending and demand growth, the Q1 inflation rate reached In the early s the chronically high inflation was brought under control.

This led to the launch of a new currency, the new Azerbaijani manat, on 1 January , to cement the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.

Azerbaijan started operating a one-stop shop in January that halved the time, cost and number of procedures to start a business.

Also, taxpayers can now file forms and pay their taxes online. Azerbaijan's extensive reforms moved it far up the ranks, from 97 to 33 in the overall ease of doing business.

According to World Bank 's Doing Business report , Azerbaijan improved its position in the Ease of doing business rank from 57 to Two-thirds of Azerbaijan is rich in oil and natural gas.

The history of the oil industry of Azerbaijan dates back to the ancient period. Arabian historian and traveler Ahmed Al-Belaruri discussed the economy of the Absheron peninsula in antiquity, mentioning its oil in particular.

The region of the Lesser Caucasus accounts for most of the country's gold, silver, iron, copper, titanium , chromium , manganese , cobalt , molybdenum , complex ore and antimony.

Access to biocapacity in Azerbaijan is less than world average. In , Azerbaijan had 0. This means they use more biocapacity than Azerbaijan contains.

As a result, Azerbaijan is running a biocapacity deficit. Baku—Tbilisi—Kars railway line will connect the Caspian region with Turkey, is expected to be completed in July Azerbaijan has the largest agricultural basin in the region.

About Livestock, dairy products, and wine and spirits are also important farm products. The Caspian fishing industry concentrates on the dwindling stocks of sturgeon and beluga.

In the Azerbaijani merchant marine had 54 ships. Some products previously imported from abroad have begun to be produced locally.

Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. However, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the s, damaged the tourist industry and the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination.

It was not until the s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays.

The government of Azerbaijan has set the development of Azerbaijan as an elite tourist destination as a top priority.

It is a national strategy to make tourism a major, if not the single largest, contributor to the Azerbaijani economy.

There are 63 countries which have visa-free score. According to a report by the World Travel and Tourism Council, Azerbaijan was among the top ten countries showing the strongest growth in visitor exports between and , [] In addition, Azerbaijan placed first The convenient location of Azerbaijan on the crossroad of major international traffic arteries, such as the Silk Road and the south—north corridor, highlights the strategic importance of transportation sector for the country's economy.

Azerbaijan is also an important economic hub in the transportation of raw materials. In , the Azerbaijani government established the Ministry of Transport with a broad range of policy and regulatory functions.

In the same year, the country became a member of the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The construction of Kars—Tbilisi—Baku railway was meant to improve transportation between Asia and Europe by connecting the railways of China and Kazakhstan in the east to the European railway system in the west via Turkey.

By , there were 35 airports and one heliport. In the 21st century, a new oil and gas boom helped to improve the situation in Azerbaijan's science and technology sectors, and the government launched a campaign aimed at modernization and innovation.

The government estimates that profits from the information technology and communication industry will grow and become comparable to those from oil production.

Azerbaijan has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the financial crisis of — ; rapid growth is forecast for at least five more years.

The country has also been making progress in developing its telecoms sector. Public payphones are available for local calls and require the purchase of a token from the telephone exchange or some shops and kiosks.

Tokens allow a call of indefinite duration. As of [update] , there were 1,, main telephone lines [] and 1,, internet users.

In the 21st century a number of prominent Azerbaijani geodynamics and geotectonics scientists, inspired by the fundamental works of Elchin Khalilov and others, designed hundreds of earthquake prediction stations and earthquake-resistant buildings that now constitute the bulk of The Republican Center of Seismic Service.

The sex ratio in the same year was 0. The population growth-rate was 0. The Azerbaijani diaspora is found in 42 countries [] and in turn there are many centers for ethnic minorities inside Azerbaijan, including the German cultural society "Karelhaus", Slavic cultural center, Azerbaijani-Israeli community, Kurdish cultural center, International Talysh Association, Lezgin national center "Samur", Azerbaijani- Tatar community, Crimean Tatars society, etc.

The ethnic composition of the population according to the population census: In total, Azerbaijan has 78 cities, 63 city districts, and one special legal status city.

These are followed by urban-type settlements and villages. The official language is Azerbaijani , which is a Turkic language.

Some of these language communities are very small and their numbers are decreasing. Under article 48 of its Constitution , Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Of the nation's religious minorities, the estimated , Christians 3. State Department report on the matter mentions detention of members of certain Muslim and Christian groups, and many groups have difficulty registering with the SCWRA.

A relatively high percentage of Azerbaijanis have obtained some form of higher education, most notably in scientific and technical subjects.

According to Soviet data, percent of males and females ages nine to forty-nine were literate in Since independence, one of the first laws that Azerbaijan's Parliament passed to disassociate itself from the Soviet Union was to adopt a modified-Latin alphabet to replace Cyrillic.

Initial alterations have included the reestablishment of religious education banned during the Soviet period and curriculum changes that have reemphasized the use of the Azerbaijani language and have eliminated ideological content.

In addition to elementary schools, the education institutions include thousands of preschools, general secondary schools, and vocational schools , including specialized secondary schools and technical schools.

Education through the eighth grade is compulsory. The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences.

Today, national traditions are well preserved in the country despite Western influences, including globalized consumer culture.

Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram.

The latter is derived from the traditional celebration of the New Year in the ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism.

Novruz is a family holiday. The profile of Azerbaijan's population consists, as stated above, of Azerbaijanis, as well as other nationalities or ethnic groups, compactly living in various areas of the country.

Azerbaijani national and traditional dresses are the Chokha and Papakhi. There are radio broadcasts in Russian, Georgian , Kurdish , Lezgian and Talysh languages, which are financed from the state budget.

Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly a thousand years. Mugham , meykhana and ashiq art are among the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan.

Mugham is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes. When performing mugham, the singers have to transform their emotions into singing and music.

In contrast to the mugham traditions of Central Asian countries, Azerbaijani mugham is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz.

Meykhana is a kind of traditional Azerbaijani distinctive folk unaccompanied song, usually performed by several people improvising on a particular subject.

Ashiq combines poetry, storytelling, dance, and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art that stands as a symbol of Azerbaijani culture.

It is a mystic troubadour or traveling bard who sings and plays the saz. This tradition has its origin in the Shamanistic beliefs of ancient Turkic peoples.

Since the mids, Western-influenced Azerbaijani pop music , in its various forms, that has been growing in popularity in Azerbaijan, while genres such as rock and hip hop are widely produced and enjoyed.

Azerbaijan made its debut appearance at the Eurovision Song Contest. The country's entry gained third place in and fifth the following year.

There are dozens of Azerbaijani folk dances. They are performed at formal celebrations and the dancers wear national clothes like the Chokha , which is well-preserved within the national dances.

Most dances have a very fast rhythm. The national dance shows the characteristics of the Azerbaijani nation.

The earliest known figure in Azerbaijani literature was Izzeddin Hasanoglu , who composed a divan consisting of Persian and Turkic ghazals.

Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in the 14th century based on the various Early Middle Ages dialects of Tabriz and Shirvan.

The Book of Dede Korkut consists of two manuscripts copied in the 16th century, [] was not written earlier than the 15th century.

Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society.

Modern literature in Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iran it is based on the Tabrizi one.

The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Akinchi was published in In the midth century, it was taught in the schools of Baku , Ganja , Shaki , Tbilisi , and Yerevan.

Since , it has also been taught in the University of Saint Petersburg in Russia. Azerbaijanis have a rich and distinctive culture, a major part of which is decorative and applied art.

This form of art is represented by a wide range of handicrafts, such as chasing, jeweler, engraving in metal, carving in wood, stone, and bone, carpet-making, lasing, pattern weaving and printing, knitting and embroidery.

Each of these types of decorative art, evidence of the endowments of the Azerbaijan nation, is very much in favor here. Many interesting facts pertaining to the development of arts and crafts in Azerbaijan were reported by numerous merchants, travelers, and diplomats who had visited these places at different times.

The Azerbaijani carpet is a traditional handmade textile of various sizes, with a dense texture and a pile or pile-less surface, whose patterns are characteristic of Azerbaijan's many carpet-making regions.

Azerbaijan has been since ancient times known as a center of a large variety of crafts. The archeological dig on the territory of Azerbaijan testifies to the well-developed agriculture, stock raising, metalworking, pottery, ceramics, and carpet-weaving that date as far back as to the 2nd millennium BC.

Azerbaijani carpets can be categorized under several large groups and a multitude of subgroups. Scientific research of the Azerbaijani carpet is connected with the name of Latif Kerimov , a prominent scientist and artist.

It was his classification that related the four large groups of carpets with the four geographical zones of Azerbaijan, Guba-Shirvan, Ganja-Kazakh, Karabakh and Tabriz.

The traditional cuisine is famous for an abundance of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro coriander , dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table.

Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea , local meat mainly mutton and beef , and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens.

Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage. Azerbaijani architecture typically combines elements of East and West.

Among other architectural treasures are Quadrangular Castle in Mardakan , Parigala in Yukhary Chardaglar , a number of bridges spanning the Aras River, and several mausoleums.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, little monumental architecture was created, but distinctive residences were built in Baku and elsewhere.

Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor.

The task for modern Azerbaijani architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment.

Azerbaijani art includes one of the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered as Gamigaya Petroglyphs in the territory of Ordubad Rayon are dated back to the 1st to 4th centuries BC.

About dislodged and carved rock paintings with images of deer, goats, bulls, dogs, snakes, birds, fantastic beings and also people, carriages and various symbols had been found out on basalt rocks.

Over the centuries, Azerbaijani art has gone through many stylistic changes. Azerbaijani painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Azim Azimzade and Bahruz Kangarli , and a preoccupation with religious figures and cultural motifs.

The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in cinematography.

Just like today, the oil industry attracted foreigners eager to invest and to work. This also influenced the creation of Azerbaijani animation.

In December , the former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, signed a decree proclaiming 2 August to be the professional holiday of filmmakers of Azerbaijan.

Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Once again, both choices of content and sponsorship of films are largely left up to the initiative of the filmmaker.

The Constitution of Azerbaijan claims to guarantee freedom of speech, but this is denied in practice. After several years of decline in press and media freedom, in , the media environment in Azerbaijan deteriorated rapidly under a governmental campaign to silence any opposition and criticism, even while the country led the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe May—November Spurious legal charges and impunity in violence against journalists have remained the norm.

According to the Freedom House Freedom of the Press report , Azerbaijan's press freedom status is "not free," and Azerbaijan ranks th out of countries.

Christianity is officially recognized, but in practice it is often oppressed. All religious communities are required to register to be allowed to meet, under the risk of imprisonment.

This registration is often denied. During the last few years, [ when? Azerbaijan had the biggest number of journalists imprisoned in Europe and Central Asia in , according to the Committee to Protect Journalists , and is the 5th most censored country in the world, ahead of Iran and China.

A report by an Amnesty International researcher in October points to ' Sadly Azerbaijan has been allowed to get away with unprecedented levels of repression and in the process almost wipe out its civil society'.

Human rights organizations remained unable to resume their work. At least 18 prisoners of conscience remained in detention at the end of the year.

Reprisals against independent journalists and activists persisted both in the country and abroad, while their family members also faced harassment and arrests.

International human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Reports of torture and other ill-treatment persisted.

Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16, covert payments from to Some of this money went to politicians and journalists, as part of an international lobbying operation to deflect criticism of Azerbaijan's president, Ilham Aliyev, and to promote a positive image of his oil-rich country.

Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Azerbaijan's national sport , in which Azerbaijan won up to fourteen medals , including four golds since joining the International Olympic Committee.

Currently, the most popular sports include football and wrestling. Football is the most popular sport in Azerbaijan, and the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan with 9, registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.

Azerbaijan is one of the traditional powerhouses of world chess, [] having hosted many international chess tournaments and competitions and became European Team Chess Championship winners in , and As of [update] , country's home of Shamkir Chess a category 22 event and one of the highest rated tournaments of all time.

Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League is one of strongest women leagues in world. Its women's national team came fourth at the European Championship.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the independent country in the Caucasus.

For other uses, see Azerbaijan disambiguation. Country in the Caucasus. National emblem. Location of Azerbaijan green with Nagorno-Karabakh [a] light green.

Further information: Atropatene , Caucasian Albania , and Azerbaijan toponym. Main article: History of Azerbaijan.

Further information: Caucasian Albania. See also: Extreme points of Azerbaijan. Main article: Wildlife of Azerbaijan.

Further information: Fauna of Azerbaijan and Flora of Azerbaijan. Main article: Politics of Azerbaijan. See also: Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Foreign relations of Azerbaijan. See also: Azerbaijan and the European Union. Main article: Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan.

Largest cities or towns in Azerbaijan Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions , Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee.

Main article: Azerbaijani Armed Forces. Main article: Economy of Azerbaijan. Main article: Energy in Azerbaijan. Further information: Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Agriculture in Azerbaijan. Main article: Tourism in Azerbaijan. Main articles: Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Demographics of Azerbaijan. Further information: Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan. Main article: List of cities in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Languages of Azerbaijan. Main articles: Religion in Azerbaijan and Freedom of religion in Azerbaijan. Main article: Education in Azerbaijan.

Main articles: Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan. Main articles: Music of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani dances. Main article: Azerbaijani literature.

Main article: Azerbaijani folk art. Main article: Azerbaijani cuisine. Main article: Architecture of Azerbaijan.

Main article: Visual arts of Azerbaijan. Main articles: Media of Azerbaijan and Media freedom in Azerbaijan. Main article: Human rights in Azerbaijan.

Main article: Sport in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan portal Europe portal Asia portal. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 23 February In Elgie, Robert ; Moestrup, Sophia eds. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia.

London: Palgrave Macmillan published 15 May LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan's regime is a curious hybrid, in which semi-presidential institutions operate in the larger context of authoritarianism.

The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency.

In addition to the considerable formal powers laid out in the Constitution, Azerbaijan's president also benefits from the support of the ruling party and informal family and patronage networks.

LaPorte concludes by discussing the theoretical implications of this symbiosis between formal and informal institutions in Azerbaijan's semi-presidential regime.

Retrieved 9 February International Monetary Fund. April Retrieved 16 August World Bank. Retrieved 5 March United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Marshall Cavendish. United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 26 May Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The Jakarta Post. Azerbaijan Since Independence. Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 24 July Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 March First Encyclopaedia of Islam — reprint ed.

Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History. Greenwood Publishing Group. Hellenistic Civilization. John Wiley and Sons.

Alexander the Great in Fact and fiction. Oxford University Press. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.

Kessinger Publishing. Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 June Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H.

Until , when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.

Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: academisch proefschrift.

Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to , unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.

Tauris and Company. In the post Islamic sense, Arran and Shirvan are often distinguished, while in the pre-Islamic era, Arran or the western Caucasian Albania roughly corresponds to the modern territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In the Soviet era, in a breathtaking manipulation, historical Azerbaijan northwestern Iran was reinterpreted as "South Azerbaijan" in order for the Soviets to lay territorial claim on historical Azerbaijan proper which is located in modern-day northwestern Iran.

Gibb Memorial Trust. The languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. Institute of Physics. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences.

Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 27 May Dizadji, M. C USA: Trafford Publishing. Zondervan Academic.

Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. Hewsen, Robert H. Thomas J. Samuelian, ed. Classical Armenian Culture: Influences and Creativity.

Philadelphia: Scholars Press. Scholars Press. Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stone, eds.

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